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RENAISSANCE

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maddie cottam

on 5 October 2015

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Transcript of RENAISSANCE

The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in learning, science & the arts throughout Europe. The rediscovery of the writings of ancient Greece & Rome led to renewed interest in learning. It was a bridge between the middle ages & the Modern era, with revolutions in many intellectual pursuits.

Art
: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Galileo

The Renaissance Scholar was expected to master all branches of knowledge. Leonardo da Vinci had an insatiable desire to know everything - held up as the ideal Renaissance man.

First
printer
invented 1450
RENAISSANCE
VOCAL MUSIC
Motet
- unaccompanied choral composition based on sacred Latin text not used in a mass
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
Instruments grouped into:
CONSORTS or MIXED CONSORTS
Canzona, Ricercar, Toccata
Use of Dance Forms (pavane/galliard)
RENAISSANCE
INSTRUMENTS
Some more.....
Crumhorn, Hurdygurdy, Natural Trumpet
COMPOSERS
John Dowland
1563 - 1626
MUSICAL
ELEMENTS
The Renaissance is an important time period for modern music and musical instruments. Many styles and techniques came about in this time. More importantly, most of the instruments that we see today have evolved from instruments from the Renaissance.
RHYTHM
smooth / regular / flow
metre generally unstressed
TONALITY
Mostly modal, accidentals creeping in as period progressed.
'Musica Ficta' - the avoidance of 'diabolus in musica' - Tritone
HARMONY
Rich
TEXTURE
Mainly Polyphonic
'seemingly seamless'
GENRE/ FORM
Determined by text, Cantus Firmus
Mass, Motet, Madrigal, Lute Song
DYNAMICS
Not indicated
TIMBRE
Primarily Vocal
Homogeneous Families of Instruments
MELODY
Conjunct & relatively unarticulated
Tone painting,
vocally derived
REEDS
The Shawm
- ancestor to double reed instruments:
Oboe, Bassoon, English horn
Popular for outdoor use during the Renaissance.
BRASS
curved
straight
muted
Serpent
RECORDERS
Made from one cylindrical piece of wood.
One thumb hole & seven finger holes - 2 octaves. Small ones were made out of 1 piece of wood, whereas the larger ones were made out of several & had a key for the lower notes.
Very popular in England - simple to play.
PLUCKED STRINGS
Harp, Lute, Guitar
(strings made from twisted animal gut, horse hair or silk)





During the Renaissance the Lute held the highest respect of all musical instruments. Plectrums were replaced by fingertips to provide delicacy, expressiveness & nuances of performance, also facilitated complex polyphony.

The lute became the perfect solo instrument as well as an ideal accompaniment for the voice & other soft instruments. Vast repertoire of secular music.
BOWED STRINGS
Unfretted
: fiddles, violin family

Fretted
: viols, superficially like violins and played with a bow. Bow is slightly convex and held palm outwards (in contrast to concave modern bow). Also has 6 strings rather than 4 along with frets.

viola da braccia

viola da gamba
(held over the arm)

(held between the legs)
FLUTES
Wooden, with holes not keys (except for lowest note) similar to a fife.
KEYBOARD
Organ
- large church organ
Harpsichord

- strings plucked by quills
Clavichord
- strings struck by metal tangents
Virginal(s)
- smaller & simpler version of harpsichord, often with no legs
PERCUSSION
Drums

- pipe & tabor
- various types of drum
- tambourine
- bells

A guide to Medieval & Renaissance instruments:
http://www.music.iastate.edu/antiqua/instrumt.html
G. Palestrina
1525-1594
(a selection)
Lassus
1532 - 1594
REBIRTH
1400-1600

Another type of curved cornett is a serpent.
A bass cornett, curved to reach the finger holes
Cornetts
Cornetts - made out of wood, played by buzzing lips into mouthpiece. 3 main types:
Sackbut - ancestor to the trombone, also made out of wood (or thin metal) & had a handle on the slide to reach lower notes.
Sackbut
Madrigals
- songs, varied in style, expressing every kind of human mood & emotion. Some very contrapuntal with great use of imitation, while others are mainly chordal, using clear-cut rhythms from dance music.
STRINGS
WOODWIND
The Dulcian
- larger version of the Shawm, has a crook to hold the reed - similar to a bassoon.
Could be muted by placing a metal cover over the top.
(Audio - Orlando Gibbons - Consort of Viols)
Ideal accompaniment for dance & entertainment
Josquin des Prez
1440 - 1521
NETHERLANDS
Thomas Tallis
1505-1585
William Byrd
1543-1623
Thomas Morley
1557-1602
Orlando Gibbons
1583 -1625
ENGLAND
G. Gabrieli
1555-1612
C. Monteverdi
1567-1643
C. Gesualdo
1560-1625
ITALY
FINGERPRINTS

Based on

modes

(treated more freely, accidentals gradually creeping in)
Bass voice added -
richer fuller texture
4 or more voice parts
Blending
, rather than contrasting textures
Smoother treatment of dischords
Church music - a cappella, contrapuntal, imitation, dovetailing, continuously flowing, seamless texture.
SEEMINGLY SEAMLESS
St Mark's -
Polychoral
pieces in
antiphonal
style
Secular music - rich variety of vocal & instrumental music
Characteristic
TIMBRES
of Rennaissance instruments - forming families (same instrument different sizes) - consorts
SACRED
SECULAR
Italian frottola
:
Josquin
El Grillo
German Lied
:
Isaac
Innsbruck, ich muss dich lessen
French chanson
:
Passereau
Il est bel et bon
Spanish villancico
:
Encina
Oy comamos y bemamos
Listen to: Tallis -
Hear thy voice & prayer 1547
Listen to: Palestrina -
Missa Papae Marcelli
1562
Tallis -
Spem in alium
Morley -
We sing and we chant it
Josquin -
Ave Maria
Palestrina -
Missa Papae Marcelli
Monteverdi -
L'Orfeo
Morley -
Lavolto
1599
Byrd -
In Nomine
1575
Byrd -
The Earle of Salisbury Pavan 1612
Susato - Danserye 1551
Cantus firmus
Seamless texture, polyphony, imitation
Antiphonal, St Marks, Venice, Italy
Mass
- unaccompanied choral composition set to specific religious text (Liturgy) 5 parts:
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Anthem
- Counterpart of the motet but sung in English
Listen to: Josquin -
Absalon fili mi
?1509 (story from the bible - David’s lament upon the death of his treacherous son Absalon)
Listen to different types of songs below which were popular during the Renaissance period.
Make a note of the main features:

Contrapuntal with use of imitation - or mainly chordal?
For one or more solo voices - or several singers per voice part?
Unaccompanied - or with instruments?

Italian madrigal
: Montevrdi
O primavera
Elizabethan Madrigals - in 1588 a collection of Italian madrigals with English words was published in England. This sparked great enthusiasm and soon English composers were writing their own madrigals, which were performed usually one singer per part, in the homes of keen music-lovers. There came to be three kinds:
through composed
contrapuntal
all voices equally important
light, springy texture
word painting
lighter in style
clear cut dance-like rhythm
mainly chordal texture
Strophic
'fa-la-la' refrain at section endings
Solo voice accompanied by lute, viols or all parts sung by voices
Often printed on two facing pages of a book, melody on the left with words underneath & lower parts on the right. In performance the book was placed on a table so that singers/instrumentalists could be seated around it, sharing the same copy.
Greatest composer: John Dowland (also expert lute player)
ELIZABETHAN MADRIGALS
The madrigal proper
Listen to: Thomas Weelkes
As Vesta was from Latmos Hill descending
1601 (written for 6 solo voices)
The ballett
Listen to: Thomas Morley
Now is the month of maying
1595
Listen to: John Dowland
Flow my teares
1596
The ayre
16th Century
Full transcript