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The Babylonian's & Ptolemy's Model of the Universe
Transcript of The Babylonian's & Ptolemy's Model of the Universe
Model of the Universe A Little about Claudius Ptolemy Ptolemy's Theory of the Universe Relevance to Today's Theories Babylonian Astronomy The Astronomers of Babylon How the calendar & Zodiac system evolved Ptolemy vs. Babylonians •Ptolemy's theory was called the "Geocentric Model" meaning that the universe was only composed of what we know today as the Solar System. Ptolemy believed the Earth was stationary & that it was the center of the Universe & that the other planets & Sun orbited around it. • The astronomers of Babylon were a special group of scribes(people who learned to read & write using cuneiform) who would observe the movements of the stars & planets • In comparison to the Ptolemaic system, the Babylonian astronomy system is gravitated more towards a mathematical & arithmetic theory of approach rather than an observable method. • In the 800 B.C, Babylonians started looking in the skies & making precise observations & this practice had continued for ~350 years.
•In observatories in Mesopotamia, astronomers would use hollow tubes to look up in the sky for visible stars. They even divided the sky into 3 different regions. To summarize;
• Ptolemy's theory was a geocentric model which suggested the Earth was the center of the Universe & that the stars & planets orbited it. This was based on observations from Claudius Ptolemy. His theory was used for 1400+ years & wasn't revised until 1563 & 1610 by Copernicus & Galileo, respectively. Their theory revolved around the universe being a heliocentric model & was confirmed using Galileo's telescope.
•The Babylonians were a group of very early astronomers (B.C) & came well before Ptolemy & their observations were very mathematical & arithmetic based. This allowed for them to make precise calculations about the celestial objects out in our solar system. Using thid method allowed for the creation of a Zodiac system & a lunar calendar that we have today.
The Babylonians & Ptolemy work in astronomy had paved the road for new astronomical studies, theories & we are able to make new discoveries out in the cosmos. Without their efforts, who knows where our knowledge of the universe would be today. • Claudius Ptolemy ( Born AD 90 - AD 168) was a Greek-Roman citizen of Alexandria, Egypt. His professions were; a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, & astrologer. He was one of the most influential people in the second century for his contributions to astronomy & geography.
• He lived in Egypt under Roman ruling & was believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemias Hermiou in Thebaid, Egypt.
• Ptolemy began his observation of the skies from approx. AD 127-41. One of Ptolemy's major & most known work was the "Almagest" which was a treatise/essay describing the apparent motion of the planets & Sun in our solar system • The order from the earth going outwards was: Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Fixed Stars •Ptolemy had predicted the positions of the planets, sun, and stars using geometric models & epicycles which is a rotary motion meaning that a celestial object rotates in a small circle while going around the "Earth". • Ptolemy's theory that the universe was a geocentric model in that the Earth was the center of the universe. His theory was widely accepted & used by the Chinese & Ancient Greeks for 1400+ years.
• His theory was never revised until 1563 when Nicolaus Copernicus suggested the universe was a "Heliocentric Model" meaning that the Sun was the center of the Universe & that the Earth, planets, stars orbited around it; however, it wasn't until 1610 when Galileo Galilei was able to prove Copernicus's theory using the invention of the telescope.
• Astronomy has come along way since these 3 men & we have proved different theories about how the universe. We found out using the Hubble telescope that there are more galaxies out in the cosmos, some bigger, some smaller, some not as violent & some that have catastrophic amounts of energy inside them. We also found out different events in the cosmos such as a supernova which is the death of a star which can turn into a neutron star or a black hole. Much has been discovered & our knowledge will only grow & it was only possible due to the early work of the early astronomers of the Earth. • Astronomers had to take responsibility because they were under a king's ruling. They would make & record daily, monthly, & yearly observations of the positions of the stars & planets. They would then report to their king & suggest how their observations would affect the calendar. • The origin of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia & all western efforts in exact sciences is directly related to the late work of the Babylonian astronomers. • To this day, there are some records of observations from the Babylonians that have survived since early time. These are; •Venus tablets of Ammizaduga (1500 B.C.) • Eclipse Records (very early times) • New-moon records (very early times too) • These records proved to important in the early start of Babylonian astronomy; however as science had progressed, taking new observations served to gradually grow less important
• Observational astronomy had given a pathway for mathematical analysis to be conducted at the skies making observations more precise & can be proved. . •Using this method, they were able to measure the distance between stars with precision & that is how the Zodiac system had arose. 300 years later, people had started casting their personal horoscopes in the skies to identify what kind of personality & character traits they possessed & this manner still exists to this day & is quite popular. •The Babylonian's wanted to the determine the motion of the sun & moon but they needed to have a proper lunar calendar to guide them. The establishment of a reliable lunar calendar was essential if further studies were to be conducted. Using sophisticated mathematics, they were eventually able to predict solar eclipses & the movements of the planets. They also observed the cycle of the moon & was able to develop the calendar for a year of 12 months & 30 days in each month.