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The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature

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Anniesza Villanueva

on 21 August 2013

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Transcript of The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature

The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure, and Temperature
Weather
- is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time.
- influences our lives a great deal
- is constantly changing
Atmosphere's Composition
Temperature Changes
Air temperature dropped with increasing height above Earth's surface.
Earth-Sun Relationship
- all of the energy that drives Earth's variable weather and climate comes from the sun.

Climate
- a generalization of the weather conditions of a place over a long period of time
Bagyong Uring (November 1991) is the worst typhoon in the Philippines having 5101 deaths and causing 1.045 billion worth of damages.
Did you know ?
Elements that are measured regularly of weather and climate.
Air Temperature
Humidity
Type and amount of cloudiness
Type and amount of precipitation
Air Pressure
Speed and Direction of the wind
Variable Components
Water Vapor
-
ability to absorb heat given off by Earth as well as some solar energy.
Aerosols
-

a system of solid or liquid particles suspended in air or other gaseous environment.
Ozone
-
a gas made up of three oxygen atoms (O3)
the presence of the ozone layer is crucial to those of us who dwell on earth
.
Troposphere-
the region where air "turns over"
- all important weather phenomena occur.
Environmental Lapse Rate-

when temperature decreases in the troposphere
Stratosphere-
the atmosphere's ozone is concentrated
- contains over 15% of the total mass of the atmosphere, and is where the ozone layer is located.
Did you know?
Very few airplanes can fly as high as the stratosphere because the air is so thin that there is not enough lift to keep the aircraft supported. Some spy planes do fly in the lower stratosphere. Another exception to this is in cold winter air masses, when the stratosphere can lower to an altitude where airplanes can fly.
Circle of Illumination
-
line separating the dark half of Earth from the lighted half.

Earth's Motion

Rotation- the spinning of Earth about its axis.
Revolution
-
movement of the Earth in its orbit around the sun.
Seasons

Seasonal change in the altitude of the Sun
-the sun is high in the sky, the solar rays are most concentrated.
-the angle of the sun determines the amount of atmosphere the rays must penetrate
Earth's Orientation

Did you know?

If the axis were not inclined, we would have no seasonal changes.
Inclination of the axis- Earth is tilted 23 1/2 degrees
Solstices and Equinoxes
-
Solstice
is the beginning of winter and summer.
- the sun is vertical at the latitude

-
Equinox
is the beginning of fall and spring.

- t
he sun is vertical at the latitude
- it
refers the equal time of day and night
Energy
- " the capacity to do things"
- Kinetic energy, the energy of motion.

Heat
- energy possessed by a material arising from the internal motions of its atoms.

Temperature
- the average kinetic energy of a material's atom
- " the degree of hotness"
Did you know?
When water evaporates from the surface of the Earth, it cools the surface. This keeps the surface from getting too hot. But because that water vapor is also the atmosphere's primary greenhouse gas, water vapor acts to keep the Earth's surface warmer than it would otherwise be.
Nitrogen and Oxygen make up 99% of the air
Mesosphere
-
where the coldest temperatures in the atmosphere occur.
Thermosphere
-
contains only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere's mass.
- temperature is very high
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