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Articles of Confederation/ Philadelphia Convention

APUSH Presentation

Gabrielle Saldivar

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Articles of Confederation/ Philadelphia Convention

Articles of Confederation/ Philadelphia Convention Gabrielle Saldivar Philadelphia Convention The Great Compromise The Connecticut/ Great Compromise New Jersey Plan The Virginia Plan Why it was Called For: Split between Plans What Happened There The Delegates Weaknesses Strengths Purpose Articles of Confederation Made to give the new government a sense of being united after the Revolutionary War
Became America's 1st Constitution
Wanted to still maintain states' power
Did not want a strong central government for fear of a dictator or king All 13 States united
Brought a closing to the American Revolution
Congress could declare war or make peace
Congress could sign treaties with foreign countries
Created a postal system
Congress was able to borrow money Many were veterans from the American Revolution
Most were considered young for being in politics, the average age was 42
Many had served in the Continental Congress
Professional men: many of them were lawyers
A majority had money and power
Rhode Island did no want to send anyone
New York's delegates left and New Hampshire's delegates were late Delegates decide to throw out the Articles of Confederation
This calls for a a new Constitution and many new suggestions were given
Split between small states and larger states
Two plans: The Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan Continental Congress had no power to levy taxes
Had no power to regulate commerce
Difficulties enforcing the rules upon the independent states and stubborn individuals
6 States had complained to Congress about the Articles of Confederation Roger Sherman: Connecticut delegate
Bicameral legislature
Upper house: Senate, 2 delegates from each state, chosen by legislatures of each state (favored Small States Plan)
Lower house: House of Representatives, delegates based on population, elected by the people (Favored Large States Plan)
All bills about taxes would start in the lower house
President: chose officials, power of veto, Commander- in- Chief of military Edmund Randolph: great speaker, representative from Virginia
Plan mainly devised by James Madison (the Father of the Constitution)
Bicameral legislature: two-house
Legislature chose president of the nation and the court
Population changed representation in each state
Called the Large States Plan Congress called for a Convention to revise the Articles of Confederation
Each state appointed delegates to attend the meeting in Philadelphia
Total delegates: 55 from 12 states
Delegates attempted to create a better Constitution by throwing out the Articles of Confederation May 1787 http://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/topics/philadelphia-convention/
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/convention1787.html March 1, 1781- March 4, 1789 Needed an unanimous vote to amend
Congress had little control over the states
Non existent executive or judicial branch
Congress had no power to levy taxes or control commerce
Just one vote per state no matter the population
No common currency
No national army or navy
Difficult to pass laws with the 2/3 vote States' Power Able to create tariffs on trade between states
Each state had its own currency
States stood independently under one document William Paterson: delegate from New Jersey
Unicameral legislature: one-house
Each state would get one vote, no matter the population
Congress would have most power with the ability to tax and regulate trade
The executive and judicial branch would be separated and almost meaningless
Similar to the Articles of Confederation
Small States Plan The Constitution Federalists versus Anti-Federalists Split between Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists: Against the Constitution, National government and president had too much power, complained about lack of individual rights, lack of states' power and 6 year term for senators
Federalists: For the Constitution, national government protected people's rights, men with experience should govern the nation, the government should control uncooperative states September 17, 1787 What It Consisted Of 3/5 Compromise: Allowed the South to have power in representation, 3/5 of a person counts as a slave
Checks and balances between the newly made 3 branches of government
Each state guaranteed 2 senators and representation in the House depends on population
President given the power of veto, figurehead of government, chosen by the Electoral College Important People James Madison: "Father of the Constitution", believed that liberty should be input into the structure of government
George Washington: became the 1st president, had been Commander of the Continental Army
Benjamin Franklin: the eldest member at the Convention, took a public stand against slavery at the Philadelphia Convention June 14
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