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Transcript of Radio
Many scientists and inventors made discoveries and devices that led to the first radios...
built first wireless system that could transmit signals at long distances.
, a vacuum tube that detects radio signals. It leads to the creation of AM radio.
He is the first to use the term “radio.”
"Amplitude Modulation"; First method of impressing sound on a radio signal.
Dozens of AM stations emerged in the mid-1920s. Some joined networks, by sharing programs to cut costs.
National Broadcasting Co. (NBC) owned by David Sarnoff, was the first and biggest network in the beginning.
Radio Act of 1927
Early radio became a “Wild West” of a jumbled broadcast band, with many stations jostling with each other.
Interference was a major problem.
Congress passed the Radio Act of 1927, creating the
Federal Radio Commission
The commission defined the AM band, and required licenses for frequencies and power levels
FCC is Born
1934: the Federal Radio Commission was replaced by the
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC), which regulates all types of broadcast communications.
first demonstrated FM (frequency modulation) radio in the mid-1930s.
Despite its superior quality, radio station owners were more interested in developing television.
FM stations finally began popping up in large numbers in the 1970s.
FM Radio Grows
FM radio produces superior sound quality, and is less prone to interference
AM signals typically travel farther than FM
Most music stations migrated to FM
FM stations now account for about 75% of the total radio audience
AM became dominated by talk radio
Format refer to the type of consistent hourly programming a station provides
Radio stations often have specialized formats, such as “adult contemporary” or “urban”
102.7 KIIS FM, 89.3 KPCC, K-Earth 101, Power 106
Radio is Changing
Telecommunications Act of 1996
: many mergers & purchases of radio stations.
Many stations are now part of large conglomerates such as Clear Channel (1,200 stations).
Formats have become homogenized (many sound basically the same).
Internet radio: PANDORA
Many stations have an online version that simulcasts part or all of its traditional “terrestrial” station.
Some online stations play narrow genres of music; others let listeners choose their favorite artists and types of music.
2008: Sirius & XM merge...Sirius XM
For about $13 a month, subscribers listen to 70+ music channels or 30+ talk channels, also over the Internet.The company has struggled. People mostly subscribe through factory-installed satellite radios in cars.
Measures radio audiences by mailing 3,000 to 4,000 diaries in each market, asking people to record what they listened to. About 40% are returned.
Arbitron introduces the portable people meter (PPM), which is clipped to the user’s clothes and “hears” an audible signals from participating radio stations.