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The Progressive Era

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by

Susan Myers

on 11 July 2013

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Transcript of The Progressive Era

1901-1918
The Progressive Era
Economic
Political
Social
What problems in today’s society are in need of reform?
Background:
Initiated in response to political and corporate abuses, as well as industrialization and urbanization.
Progressives came from different backgrounds & focused on a variety of issues.
Most felt government should take an active role in solving society’s problems.
Four Goals of Progressives
Protect social welfare
Promote moral improvement
Create economic reform
Foster efficiency
Jane Addams
Pioneer in the field of social work who founded the settlement house movement through the establishment of Hull House in Chicago, Illinois.
Margaret Sanger
Educated the urban poor about the benefits of family planning through birth control.
Founded the organization that became Planned Parenthood.
Booker T. Washington
Former slave who founded the Tuskegee Institute that focused on teaching African Americans trade skills to earn a living and gain the trust of white society.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Founder of the NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Harvard educated professor who focused on the need for a traditional liberal arts education for African Americans who could then insist upon equal treatment and rights from white society.
Muckrakers
Members of the press (journalists) that investigated corruption in order to expose problems to the American people.
They had a great amount of influence, often resulting in the passage of laws designed to reform the abuse they reported.
Muckrakers
Thomas Nast
Work: Political Cartoons
Subject: Political corruption by New York City’s political machine, Tammany Hall.
Results: Tweed was convicted of embezzlement and died in prison.
Jacob Riis
Work: How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Subject: Living conditions of the urban poor; focused on tenements.
Results: NYC passed building codes to promote safety and health.
Ida B. Wells
Work: A Red Record (1895)
Subject: Provided statistics on the lynching of African Americans.
Results: NAACP joined the fight for federal anti-lynching legislation.
Frank Norris
Work: The Octopus (1901)
Subject: This fictional book exposed monopolistic railroad practices in California.
Results: In Northern Securities v. US (1904), the holding company controlling railroads in the Northwest was broken up.
Ida Tarbell
Work: History of Standard Oil Company in McClure’s Magazine (1904)
Subject: Exposed the ruthless tactics of the Standard Oil Company through a series of articles.
Results: Standard Oil was broken up as a monopoly.
Lincoln Steffens
Upton Sinclair
Work: The Shame of the Cities (1904)
Subject: Examined political corruption in cities across the US.
Results: Cities began to use city commissions and city managers.
Work: The Jungle (1906)
Subject: Investigated dangerous working conditions and unsanitary procedures in the meat-packing industry.
Results: 1906 Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Acts.
The Jungle
Why did the existing inspection system fail to guard the safety of meat for human consumption?
Why was Upton Sinclair dismayed about the public reaction and legislation that followed publication of The Jungle?
How did The Jungle help the progressives achieve their goals?
Robert La Follette
Governor of Wisconsin
Wanted a direct primary where voters not party bosses choose the candidate that runs in general election.
City Commissioner Plan
Cities hired experts in different fields to run a single aspect of city government.
For example, the sanitation commissioner would be in charge of garbage and sewage removal.
City Manager Plan
A professional city manager is hired to run each department of the city and report directly to the city council.
Secret Ballot
Privacy at the ballot box ensures that citizens can cast votes without party bosses knowing how they voted.
Referendum
Allows voters to decide if a bill or proposed amendment should be passed. Initiated by the government.
Initiative
Allows voters to petition state legislatures in order to consider a bill desired by citizens. Initiated by the people.
Recall
Allows voters to petition to have an elected representative removed from office.
Direct Primary
Direct Election of US Senators
Ensures that voters select candidates to run for office, rather than party bosses.
Voters choose senators rather than allowing state legislatures to choose them. Decreases the influence of the political machines.
Environment
Newlands Reclamation Act
Encouraged conservation by allowing the building of dams and irrigation systems using money from the sale of public lands.
Elkins Act
Outlawed the use of rebates by railroad officials or shippers.
Pure Food & Drug Act
Required that companies accurately label the ingredients contained in processed food items.
Meat Inspection Act
In direct response to Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, this law required that meat processing plants be inspected to ensure the use of good meat and health-minded procedures.
Hepburn Act
Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, allowing it to set maximum railroad rates.
Federal Reserve Act
Created 12 district Federal Reserve Banks, each able to issue new currency and loan member banks funds at the prime interest rate, as established by the Federal Reserve Board.
Clayton Anti Trust Act
Strengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by outlawing the creation of a monopoly through any means, and stated that unions were not subject to antitrust legislation.
Federal Trade Act
Established the Federal Trade Commission, charged with investigating unfair business practices including monopolistic activity and inaccurate product labeling.
16th Amendment
Granted Congress the power to tax income.
Ensures that the incomes of the wealthy would be taxed.
17th Amendment
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages.
19th Amendment
Extended the right to vote to women.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony worked for universal suffrage (right to vote).
Social Welfare
Moral
Improvement
Efficiency
Economic Reform
YMCA
Salvation Army
Anti-Saloon League
Women's Christian Temperance Movement
Assembly Lines
Theodore Roosevelt set aside 150 million acres if federal land as a national reserve.
Full transcript