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ASP100 Plagiarism and Research Overview
Transcript of ASP100 Plagiarism and Research Overview
Research & Plagiarism Overview Elizabeth Windsor
Subject Specialist Librarian
206.393.3623 Need help with research? IMPORTANT! Identify key terms! When Choosing Key Terms Locate Literature Example of identifying key terms Locate Literature: Books &Dissertations This tutorial will review basic search skills. It will also provide a step-by-step guide on effectively researching any topic.
Don't hesitate to contact your local librarian or learner support specialist if you have any questions! The vast majority of your research should be done using the Online Library. Keep in mind that there are often multiple ways to define a topic. Try brainstorming keywords that relate to the key concepts of your research question. There are multiple ways to define a topic. If you don't find what you're looking for using the first key terms you come up with, use synonyms! Identify and use the appropriate library databases. Books The Online Library holdings total nearly 25,000 online journals, 450 million articles, 50,000 + e-books, 1.7 million dissertations, and thousands of videos all of which are available on- or off-campus, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for your research needs. This information is proprietary and requires you to login via your Campus Common. Spending more time formulating a good search strategy will save you time weeding through results you don’t want. Your research topic: How does pollution effect the environment? First key term pollution Second key term environment Key Terms Pollution Environment Air pollution Oil pollution Pollution control Water pollution Ocean pollution Ecosystem Habitat Sustainability Ecology Environmental Policy Multidisciplinary Databases Credo Reference
Academic Search Elite (EBSCO)
ProQuest Central Subject Specific Databases PsycARTICLES & PsycINFO
Business Source Elite Argosy Library Catalog allows users to search across ALL ebook databases AND our physical collection. Dissertations Check the Digital Dissertations and Theses database (includes over 1 million full-text dissertations) For Best Results, Use Advanced Search WHY? More search options = more control = more relevant results
Most databases provide an advanced search option! Having trouble finding results? Use the thesaurus! The thesaurus shows relationships between terms such as synonymous or related terms, and hierarchical arrangements such as broader or narrower terms.
Using terms found in the thesaurus will help make your searching more precise. Most databases offer a thesaurus option. Please see above for the ProQuest option. Peer Reviewed Articles An article which has been reviewed and/or judged by at least two individuals in the same or similar scholarly field. Peer-reviewed articles are generally found in academic publications, such as scholarly journals. While peer-reviewed articles are scholarly articles, not all scholarly articles are peer-reviewed. Please note the difference. However, it is important to remember is that peer-reviewed and scholarly articles are both valid academic resources. Ask your professor if he or she prefers that you limit your research to peer-reviewed articles only. All the articles you use MUST be peer-reviewed unless your professor indicates otherwise. Online Library often contain peer-reviewed search options: Internet Resources The Online Library is NOT an internet resource; it is a propriety academic resource. MOST, IF NOT ALL, OF YOUR RESEARCH SHOULD BE DONE WITHIN THE ONLINE LIBRARY. However, occasionally you may need to use internet resources. .edu: An educational institution’s website. However, each institution is responsible for monitoring its own website information. Institutions generally require login for proprietary resources (such as the Online Library).
.gov: A governmental website. Great for statistics. Validated by the government.
.org: An organization’s website (often for non-profits). Use with caution. The American Psychological Association’s website (www.apa.org) is a .org. Wikipedia is also a .org.
.com: A commercial website. Use with caution. Does the website include sources? Is it clear who is responsible for the website and who you can contact about the website? While internet resources can be helpful, they should generally be one of the last places you look when researching. Search Tips To help you learn techniques to save time and get better, more relevant results when searching in the online library! Boolean Operators Use Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) to determine relationships between search terms. Boolean operators may vary slightly between databases. AND is used to combine terms and narrow a search. Example: to search for children and psychopharmacology, type AND (in caps) between the terms you would like to be associated in a search: OR is used to broaden a search, as it allows for similar terms or synonyms to be used. Example: to search children OR teenagers in relation to psychopharmacology, see below: NOT is used to exclude terms, thus narrowing your search. Example: If you would like to search for teenagers and psychopharmacology, but NOT children and psychopharmacology, enter the search terms and operators as shown below: Children OR teenagers
AND psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology AND teenagers NOT children REMEMBER Enclose search terms in quotation marks to search the exact phrase
Example: "clinical psychology" • Check for spelling errors in your search! Check for variant spellings (e.g. color and colour) and use both if you do not use wildcards! Use wildcards and truncation to capture variants.
Many databases use the asterisk (*) and question mark (?). Some may also use the exclamation point (!) and others use adjacency operators, which determine how close together you want two words in your search to be
Example: The asterisk stands for any number of letters, including none. Dog* will find dogma, dogmatic, dogmatron, doggone, dogs, dog, etc. If you’re not getting enough results, remove one or more limits. It’s better to begin with a broader search and narrow it down, than to start with too narrow of a search and end up with too few results! Use database-supplied limiters! Narrow your results on the right hand side of the screen (in ProQuest) Too many results? Why? It’s one of the most effective and efficient ways to get more relevant results. Try narrowing by subject. It’s a really powerful tool! Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism According to the American Psychological Association (2010): What is Plagiarism? “Plagiarism refers to the practice of claiming credit for the words, ideas, and concepts of others” (p. 170). According to the Council of Writing Program Administrators (2003): “In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source” (p.1) Quote something directly or indirectly (although Secondary Sources are strongly discouraged)
Use an idea or theory that influenced the way you thought or wrote about your topic (APA, 2010, p. 170).
You must provide proper credit anytime you: Plagiarism is not just using someone else’s words, but their ideas, theories, arguments, or any other work they created, and not giving proper credit to the author.
Even if the work has not been formally published or comes from somewhere like the internet, it is still plagiarism if you use an idea that was not your own and do not give credit. Retrieved from (http://www.mica.edu/news/plagiarism_workshop_february_16.html) August 31, 2011. What is Self Plagiarism? According to the APA (2010), you can also self-plagiarize by using substantial sections of your own previous work and not citing it (p.16).
To avoid self-plagiarism, follow the tips listed below:
Avoid copying and pasting entire paragraphs or sections of previous papers and assignments
Acknowledge that this material was previously written and submitted.
Always confirm with your instructor that you are allowed to include material you previously wrote for another assignment. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing means that you are restating someone else's ideas in your own words. Be able to summarize the main idea and describe supporting information all in your own words (Driscoll & Brizee, 2010).
Do NOT use the same basic sentence structure and language while only changing only a few words.
Do NOT rearrange the order of the phrases or sentences, but still use the exact wording. You must cite your source when paraphrasing. Citation is not limited to direct quotations. Information as written in original source: There are many definitions, as well as intense debates, about the exact numbers of the poor, where they live, and how their numbers and economic conditions are changing over time. It is useful to start with what is agreed, and then to mention some of the areas of debate. As a matter of definition, it is useful to distinguish between three degrees of poverty: extreme (or absolute) poverty, moderate poverty, and relative poverty. (Sachs, 2005, p.20)
Paraphrase: In his work, Jeffrey Sachs (2005) suggests that while there may be significant debate about the number of poor and their characteristics, it is important to understand the different levels of poverty that exist (p.20). Example of Paraphrasing Rewritten without using the author’s exact words. Direct quote: “There are many definitions, as well as intense debates, about the exact numbers of the poor, where they live, and how their numbers and economic conditions are changing over time. It is useful to start with what is agreed, and then to mention some of the areas of debate. As a matter of definition, it is useful to distinguish between three degrees of poverty: extreme (or absolute) poverty, moderate poverty, and relative poverty” (Sachs, 2005, p.20).
Plagiarism: There are many definitions, as well as intense arguments, about the numbers of the poor, where they live, and how their numbers and economic conditions change over time. It is useful to start with what is agreed and distinguish between three degrees of poverty: extreme poverty, moderate poverty, and relative poverty (Sachs, 2005). Example of Plagiarism Essentially a direct quote with a few words changed to something similar, and a few words or phrases deleted while the rest of the wording is largely the same. If someone has... Referencing Someone Else’s Ideas Developed a framework for thinking about an issue that you will include in your assignment or paper...
Provided a criticism of the conventional method of thinking about things that you will use in your assignment or paper...
Explained a concept that will be key in your assignment or paper... ...You are referencing their ideas and you must give them credit as the author! You will also need to list these authors in your reference list. Argosy University uses APA Style for assignments and papers, dissertations. Sachs (2005) outlines three different levels of poverty in his description of the debates about poverty. These include extreme poverty, moderate poverty, and relative poverty. Referencing Someone Else’s Ideas vs. Plagiarism Referencing someone else’s idea: Plagiarism: There are three levels of poverty that are important to understand in debates about poverty: extreme (or absolute) poverty, moderate poverty, and relative poverty. Referencing someone else’s idea: Referencing Someone Else's Ideas vs. Plagiarism Cont'd Students in general education programs tend to achieve greater reading fluency over time than Spanish-speaking students in programs for those learning English(Domínguez de Ramírez & Shapiro, 2006). Plagiarism: Studies show that students in general education programs tend to achieve greater reading fluency over time than Spanish-speaking students in programs for those learning English. Primary Source: Primary vs. Secondary Sources The original source from which an idea, theory, or concept came (the original research). Secondary Source: A description of the ideas, theories, or concepts that were written somewhere else. Example of a Secondary Source: When an article you are reading describes a theory that a different author developed, the article you are reading is a secondary source for that theory. If you want to use that theory, you will want to look for the primary source. Basically, never quote a quote. Jeffrey Sachs (2005) directly quotes John Maynard Keynes in his book The End of Poverty. Example of Using a Secondary Source TO AVOID PLAGIARISM: If you wanted to use some or all of the quotation by Keynes you must cite in your paper both that the quotation you are using comes from Keynes, and that it was quoted in a work by Jeffrey Sachs. Leaving out either author would be an improper use of sources. Keynes notes “The absence of important technological inventions between the prehistoric age and the comparatively modern times is truly remarkable” (as cited in Sachs, 2005, p. 32). You should include the full reference for Jeffrey Sachs in your reference list.
It would be preferable for you to locate the original source (the piece written by John Maynard Keynes) rather than to use Sachs as a secondary source. Something that... What is Common Knowledge? May be public knowledge
Readers are likely to know already
That someone could easily find in numerous sources (Plagiarism FAQs, n.d.)
Contributors to Purdue Owl suggest that you should be able to find the information in at least five credible sources to consider it common knowledge (Stolley & Brizee, 2011a). Example of using common knowledge: As Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Ben Bernanke plays an important role regarding monetary policy in the United States. DO: Dos and Don’ts of Incorporating Someone Else’s Words and Ideas Make sure that you give proper credit anytime you use someone else’s words, ideas, or theories.
Make sure you can summarize the ideas and theories you use without reading them directly out of the article, book, or other original source.
Make sure that you use quotation marks, that you quote the original work accurately, and that you provide appropriate citation if using someone else’s exact words. DON'T: Dos and Don'ts of Incorporating Someone Else's Words and Ideas Use quote after quote with none of your own ideas or words.
Summarize, paraphrase, or directly quote without giving credit.
Assume that just because it didn’t come out of a book or article or it wasn’t formally published that you don’t have to cite it.
Decide not to cite something because you don’t know how. "Argosy University seeks to foster a spirit of honesty and integrity. Any work submitted by a student must represent original work produced by that student. Any source used by a student must be documented through normal scholarly references and citations, and the extent to which any sources have been used must be apparent to the reader. Argosy University further considers resubmission of a work produced for one course in a subsequent course without the expressed written consent of the instructor, or the submission of work done partially or entirely by another to be academic dishonesty. It is the student’s responsibility to seek clarification from the course instructor about how much help may be received in completing an assignment or exam or project and what sources may be used.
Students found guilty of academic dishonesty or plagiarism shall be subject to disciplinary action up to and including dismissal from Argosy University.” Academic Dishonesty/Plagiarism Submit someone else’s paper as your own.
Present someone else’s ideas as your own without providing citations.
Use the exact words from the original text, but fail to enclose the quoted material within quotation marks or provide citation.
Replace a few words from the original, but pass off the rest of the material as your own without citations or quotation marks.
Cite the source used, but copy the exact words from the original with a few words substituted.
Reproduce the borrowed material in your own words, but fail to cite the source.
Rephrase or quote the source, but provide a citation other than from where you obtained the material. For example, if you read about Dewey (1972) in Gold (2004), do not cite Dewey as if you have read the original publication, but cite Dewey as a secondary source. Otherwise, you are providing an inaccurate representation of the sources used in creating your paper which is considered a form of plagiarism.
Use material from your own papers from previous courses without prior permission from your instructor. What You Should NOT do: (Excerpt from W7000 Class Module 1) Resources in the Online Library: Helpful Resources Links to information on APA formatting and the ability to create a RefWorks account. Web Resources: The OWL at Purdue's section on avoiding plagiarism and how to paraphrase (http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/)
Plagiarism (Stolley & Brizee, 2011b): http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/
Paraphrasing (Driscoll & Brizee, 2010): http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/
Includes information on what plagiarism is, exercises on paraphrasing, and best practices to avoid plagiarism.
Plagiarism.org – a website from the same company that provides TurnItIn (www.plagiarism.org).
Rules for Writers, 6th edition website is the companion website to Diana Hacker’s (2010) Rules for Writers (http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/rules6e/).
The Writers Handbook from the University of Madison-Wisconsin Writing Center: (http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase.html). ebrary Resource:
Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism (2nd ed). New York, NY: Open University Press.
Multidisciplinary databases, such as Credo Reference
Literati American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Argosy University. (2011, Sept 6). 2011 – 2012 Argosy University Academic Catalog – Graduate Programs, 2, 1. Retrieved from: http://catalog.argosy.edu/index.php?catoid=14
Argosy University, W7000 advanced academic study and writing.
Council of Writing Program Administrators. (2003). Defining and avoiding plagiarism: The WPA statement on best practices. Retrieved from http://wpacouncil.org/node/9
Driscoll, D. L., & Brizee, A. (2010, November 2). Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/
Hacker, D. (2010). Rules for writers (6th ed.). Retrieved from http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/rules6e/Player/pages/Main.aspx
Hacker, D. (2009). Rules for writers (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins.
Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism (2nd ed). New York, NY: Open University Press.
Plagiarismdotorg. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.plagiarism.org/
Plagiarism FAQs. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_article_plagiarism_faq.html
Domínguez de Ramírez, D. & Shapiro, E. (2006). Curriculum-based measurement and the evaluation of reading skills of Spanish-speaking English language learners in bilingual education classrooms.
Sach, J. (2005). The end of poverty: Economic possibilities for our time. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Stolley, K., & Brizee, A. (2011a, April 21). Is it plagiarism yet? Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/02/
Stolley, K., & Brizee, A. (2011b, June 2). Avoiding plagiarism. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/1/
The Writing Center @ the University of Wisconsin – Madison. (2010, April 4). The Writer’s Handbook . Retrieved from http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase.html Resources From This Presentation Kelly Marzano, M.A.
Learner Support Specialist
Argosy University – Denver
Qi Chen, MLIS, Ed.D
Area Library Director
312.583.9768 This Presentation was Originally Created by: If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to contact AU Seattle Subject Specialist Librarian Elizabeth Windsor (firstname.lastname@example.org, 206.393.3623).