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What are the trends of urbanisation?

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Nick Kaloupis

on 13 October 2014

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Transcript of What are the trends of urbanisation?

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What are the trends of urbanisation?
- Currently, 60 million people move to urban areas each year.
(United Nations, 2012)
(UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2013)
What will the world's population be?
How will our cities accommodate for this?
Are our cities expanding?
Where are cities expanding to?

-"Most expansion is happening upwards."

-Building Skyscrapers
-Man-made land
-Building new urban centres
Left: Prediction of Sydney in 2050. Incorporates many high rise buildings.
(The Fifth Estate, 2014)
Right: Palm Islands, Dubai.
Man-made land.
(Brett Goodyer, 2013)
What materials will future buildings
be constructed from?
How will architecture improve within the next 100 years?
What futuristic forms of transport have already begun being designed and tested?
What materials will these innovative inventions be made of? Will they be efficient?
There are many different projects that are designing transport of the future, some of which have been proposed to develop in 50 years’ time
What is the future of transport in Victoria? Better or worse?
How will the future of transport affect us?
Will future cities be sustainable?

What sustainable practices should be implemented in cities?

What are some of the major issues regarding sustainability now?
How will more sustainable practices in the future help our cities?
What kinds of renewable energy will be used in in future cities?

Wind Turbines & Solar Panels
The Future of our Cities
Architecture of the
Our product - Solar Powered Monorail System
Solar Panel Track
Large capacity
Above ground

Recycled metal carriages
1. Collins, J. 2012. Urbanisation. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/urbanisation.htm
(accessed 16 July, 2014)
2. Pearson. 2012. Urbanisation.
http://www.pearson.com.au/media/601502/11._pgeog_sb_8_urbanisation.pdf (accessed 15 July, 2014)
3. Borowiecki, K. 2013. Geographic clustering and productivity.
http://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/juecon/v73y2013i1p94-110.html (accessed July 19, 2014)
4. United Nations. 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population (accessed 20 July, 2014)
5. The Fifth Estate. 2014. http://www.thefifthestate.com.au/innovation/planning/the-challenges-of-tall-building-sustainability/ (accessed 20 July, 2014)
6. Brett Goodyer - Golf Business. 2014. http://gulfbusiness.com/2014/08/dubais-atlantis-palm-set-refinance-880-million-loan/#.U_x6yMWSw1I (accessed 21 July, 2014)
7. Andy Asbury. 2014. http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/71895/real_estate/cities_expanding_up_not_out.html
(accessed 22 July, 2014)
(Andy Asbury, 2014)
Renewable energies are crucial for future cities.

Some examples of renewable energies are :
- Wind Power
- Solar Energy
- Tidal Power
- Geo-thermal energy

How has architecture evolved
from ancient times to the present?
What is the future of transport in Victoria?
The materials that will be the basis of cars of the future will be energy efficient, safe and made of modern sustainable materials.
The three main practices are:
Improving Infrastructure
Improving water sewage systems and
Reusing/Recycling Materials
Reducing demand for land/resources
Reduction of fossil fuel energy

Major problems:
using fossil fuels
bad for the environment
contributes to climate change
More sustainable practices in the future will help our cities by:

helping prevent climate change
ensuring environment is clean and healthy.
provide environmentally friendly alternatives for electricity and fuel.

We need to find an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels as they will shortly run out.
Sustainable Cities, N.D, Welcome to Sustainable Cities, http://www.sustainablecities2013.com/, 21/8/14
The Guardian, 29/7/13, Sustainable Cities: creating urban environments of the future, http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/sustainable-cities-urban-environment-future, 21/8/14
Salter Baxter, 2010, Sustainable Cities of the Future, http://www.salterbaxter.com/directions-10-sustainable-cities-of-the-future/, 21/8/14
HowStuffWorks, 17/10/08, 5 Green Cities of the Future, http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/5-green-future-cities.htm, 21/8/14
Greenpeace, 16/11/09, Deep Green: Are Cities Sustainable?, http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/about/deep-green/deep-green-sepoct-09/, 22/8/14
National Geographic, 24/2/14, Big Energy Question: How to make our cities more livable and sustainable?, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com.au/environment/energy/great-energy-challenge/big-energy-question/how-to-make-our-cities-more-livable-and-sustainable/, 22/8/14
Wikipedia, 30/7/14, Eco-cities, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eco-cities, 22/8/14
Wikipedia, 4/7/14, Sustainable city, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_city, 22/8/14
YPTE, N.D, Sustainability, http://www.ypte.org.uk/environmental/sustainability/211, 23/8/14
EPA, N.D, What is sustainability?, http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/basicinfo.htm, 23/8/14
YPTE, N.D, Renewable Energy, http://www.ypte.org.uk/environmental/renewable-energy/200, 23/8/14

20th Century Architecture (1900-2000):

• 1900-1920 Art Nouveau
• 1900-1925 Early Modernism (See:Le Corbusier and Peter Behrens)
• 1900-1925 Continental Avant-Garde (De Stijl, Neue Sachlichkeit)
• 1900-2000 Steel-frame Skyscraper Architecture
• 1907-33 Deutscher Werkbund
• 1919-1933 Bauhaus Design (see the biography of Walter Gropius); this evolves into the International Style of Modern Architecture (1940-70).
• 1925-1940 Art Deco
• 1928-1940 Totalitarian Architecture (Germany, USSR)
• 1945-1970 Late Modernism: Second Chicago School of Architecture
• 1945-2000 High Tech Corporate Design Architecture
• 1960-2000 Postmodernist Art
• 1980-2000 Deconstructivism - see Frank O. Gehry (b.1929).
• 1990-2000 Blobitecture

Lack of resources:
within the next 100 years fossil fuels will be nearly run out
Steph, 2014, Unbuilt Buildings: 12 Awesome Future Architectural Designs http://weburbanist.com/2009/05/27/unbuilt-buildings-12-awesome-future-architectural-designs/ ,21/8/14
Neil Spiller, 25 June 2013, New designs to breathe life back into our cities http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20130624-architecture-for-a-changing-world, 21/8/14
Katherine Brooks, 05/22/14, The Architecture Of The Future Is Far More Spectacular Than You Could Imagine, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/05/22/future-architecture_n_5358586.html, 24/08/14
Frank Gehry, 1997, History of Architecture (3,000 BCE - present), http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/architecture-history.htm, 21/08/14
Dr Philip Howes, 11/09/11, building materials of the future,http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2011/sep/11/architecture, 23/08/14
MammaFotogramma, Woodskin: The Flexible Timber Skin, http://www.archdaily.com/362951/woodskin-the-flexible-timber-skin/ , 24/08/14
Mike Orcutt , March 6, 2013, Self-Healing Concrete Uses Sunlight to Fix Its Own Cracks, http://www.technologyreview.com/news/511911/self-healing-concrete-uses-sunlight-to-fix-its-own-cracks/ , 23/08/14
Economist.com, 5 March 2013, Concrete, heal thyself! http://www.economist.com/blogs/babbage/2013/03/civil-engineering, 22/08/14
Materials Used As Green Rating In Architecture http://www.theweddingspecialists.net/materials-used-as-green-rating-in-architecture.html , 21/08/14

Efficient transport system
To reduce the need of fuel and oil related transport, new ideas and technologies need to be applied to our transport networks, therefore Melbourne should begin to develop underground metros to achieve a greater rapid (transport) system which will affect the way Victoria moves dramatically.
-So it does not take up land space
-To power the system
-To move large amounts of people
-A sustainability factor
-To transport people in cities
Broom Broom!
Form thorough research and evidence the future of transport is looking quite bright and will positively influence the way in which we move.
Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.
Malcolm X

Radical railways: Last updated – June 18 2012http://www.gizmag.com/future-transport/22959/ [Accessed 20/08.2014]
8 Mass Transportation Ideas That Make The Hyperloop Look Boring: Last updated – august 15 2013 http://thecreatorsproject.vice.com/blog/8-mass-transportation-ideas-that-make-the-hyperloop-look-boring
[Accessed 20/08/2014]
Beyond Hyperloop: Wild ideas for the future of transportation:
Last updated – August 13 2013 http://www.foxnews.com/science/2013/08/13/beyond-hyperloop-wild-ideas-for-future-transportation/
[Accessed 19/08/2014]
Transport 20130 –futuristic report file:///C:/Users/PER0023/Downloads/CIV4SI-Transport_2030_Futuristic_Report_Angus_Aroa_and_Josh.pdf [Accessed 18/08/2014]
Future Materials: Last updated – 12/17/12http://jalopnik.com/5969060/ten-future-materials-that-should-be-in-your-next-car [Accessed 18/08/14]
Future Car Materials: Last updated – March 20 2012 http://news.wyotech.edu/post/2012/03/future-car-materials/#.U_UsR8WSw1I [Accessed 18/08/14]
Bullet train for Australia: http://bullettrainforaustralia.com.au/ [Accessed 20/08/14]
Projects and planning: Last updated – 10 July 2014http://www.transport.vic.gov.au/projects/melbourne-rail-link [Accessed 20/08/14]
Brainy Quote: Last updated - 2014 http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/topics/topic_future.html [Accessed 22/08/2014]

What will be the future of our cities?

We hypothesize that in the future, transport will be more efficient and accessible to the public. It will be used more frequently and will be more reliable than the transport of today. Cities in the future will be more sustainable and will most likely have many more practices in place than nowadays. Cities will mostly be running off sustainable energy which will be much better for the environment as many things will be running off solar panels, windmills etc. in addition to this, architecture will also be more efficient, simple and more sustainable.

Frank Lloyd Wrights definition of an architect.
"the goals of green building are many, but among them, the most important is reducing the pollution and help build a greener earth both for us as well as for our children to come"
(A Greener Future, 2013)
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