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Difference between Acids and Bases

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mubarak al zarooni

on 11 January 2015

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Transcript of Difference between Acids and Bases

Key difference
: Acids and bases are two types of corrosive substances. Any substance with a pH value between 0 up to 7 is considered acidic, whereas a pH value of 7 to 14 is a base. Acids are ionic compounds that break apart in water to form a hydrogen ion (H+). Ionic compounds are a compound with a positive or negative charge. Bases, on the other hand are ionic compounds that break apart to form a negatively charged hydroxide ion (OH-) in water.
Strong Acids
Weak Acids
Difference between Acids and Bases
Abdulla Binlahej, Ahmed Al Yazji, Basel Samer, Mubarak Al Zarooni
Characteristics of Acids:
• taste sour when they are eaten
• can sting the skin when they are touched
• can corrode (or eat away at) metals and skin
• can be used as a reactant during electrolysis due to the presence of mobile ions
• turn blue litmus paper red
• are studied in chemistry and biology
• turn red or orange on universal indicator

Acids can be classified into:
• Strong acids
• Some concentrated weak acids, for example formic acid and acetic acid
• Strong Lewis acids such as anhydrous aluminum chloride and boron trifluoride
• Lewis acids with specific reactivity, e.g. solutions of zinc chloride
• Extremely strong acids (superacids)

Characteristics of Bases (Alkalis):
• Bitter taste (opposed to sour taste of acids)
• Slimy, or soapy feel on fingers
• Many bases react with acids and precipitate salts.
• Strong bases may react violently with acids. An acid spill can be safely neutralised by using a mild base.
• Bases turn red litmus paper blue
• Bases are substances that contain metal oxides or hydroxides
• Bases which are soluble in water form alkalis (soluble bases)

Bases can be classified into:
• Caustics or alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH)
• Alkali metals in the metallic form function as strong bases and hydrate to give caustics
• Extremely strong bases (superbases) such as alkoxides, metal amides (e.g. sodium amide) and organometallic bases such as butyllithium
• Some concentrated weak bases, such as ammonia when anhydrous or in a concentrated solution.

Distinguishing between acids and bases.

• Litmus papers

• Turmeric

• Beetroot Juice

• Red Cabbage Juice

• pH Meter
Strong Bases
A strong base is a basic chemical compound that can remove a proton (H+) from (or deprotonate) a molecule of a very weak acid in an acid-base reaction.
Here is a list of several strong bases:
Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Lithium hydroxide (LiOH)
Cesium hydroxide (CsOH)
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
In chemistry, a weak base is a chemical base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.
Weak Bases
A list of weak bases:
NH3 ammonia
CH3NH2 methylamine
C5H5N pyridine
NH4OH ammonium hydroxide
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