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Ruminants and Non-Ruminant Digestive system

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gavin dunaway

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of Ruminants and Non-Ruminant Digestive system

Digestive Systems
Lets Start With the Basics!

The series of organs in the digestive system through which food passes, nutrients are absorbed, and waste is eliminated.
What is a Ruminant?
Any even toed, cloven-hoofed animal, that chews a cud consistently or regularly and has a stomach that is divided into four compartments.
What is a Non-Ruminant?
A non-ruminant, also known as a monogastric, is any animal that has a single compartment stomach.
Whats the difference in the two digestive tracts?

The Ruminant Digestive Tract
Does the animal have a stomach that is separated in to 4 compartments?

Do you know if the animal is a carnivore/omnivore/herbivore?

Now think about what the animal eats? Does the animal eat grass/leaves? If the animal eats meat then it wont be a ruminant.

These are some questions that you can ask yourself to identify whether the animal is a ruminant or no-ruminant.
The Ruminant Stomach!
The ruminants stomach is made up of 1 stomach and 4 compartments. These compartments are the following and are numbered in the order of digestion:
1. Rumen
2. Reticulum
3. Omasum
4. Abomasum
The Rumen:
rumen is the largest section of the stomach and is roughly 60% of the entire stomach

The rumen is also the first compartment of the 4 compartment stomach that food enters. It contains many microorganisms such as bacteria and microbes to promote and assist in fermentation.

rumen is designed so that food can be regurgitated, chewed, and then swallowed once again.
The Reticulum:
The reticulum is the second segment of the stomach.

The inside of the
reticulum has honeycomb-like ridges on the interior
of it and aids keeping food at the right moisture and consistency.

The reticulum is also known as the "hardware compartment" because any foreign objects are trapped in the reticulum such as nails, screws, rocks, etc.
The Omasum:
The omasum is the
main area for water absorption
within the stomach

This is where many of the chewed particles are pushed together and water is "rung" out of the particles. (Similar to wringing our a rag). This compartment also filters.
The Abomasum:
The Abomasum is known as the
true stomach, it
is where the site of digestion takes place.

The abomasum is
similar to the stomach of those in
monogastric animals
What Organs Assist in The Process of Moving
Food in and Out of The Digestive Tract?
Small Intestine
The Non-Ruminant (Monogastric) Digestive Tract!
The non-ruminant (monogastric) stomach is known as the
"simple stomach"

This type of stomach is found in
, dogs, swine, primates, and cats. The simple stomach secretes low acid to help aid in the process of breaking down food. This acid also destroys any bacteria.

Unlike a ruminant, a non ruminant does not regurgitate its food to aid in the digestion process.

These animals are better able to utilize concentrated feeds than roughage.
The Parts of a Non-Ruminant Digestive Tract:

Although much simpler than the Ruminant, the Non-Ruminant has a
unique set of organs that aide in the digestive process. These organs are the liver and the pancreas.

The small intestine assists in the process of breaking down the food particles and begins the process of absorbing nutrients through finger like projections called villi.
The Liver and Pancreas
The Pancreas secretes enzymes that
help break down fat while the liver secretes
bile which digests fat. The liver also stores
iron and assists as a filter.
Spot The Ruminant Interactive Quiz!

Step 1 : Identify which of the 5 animals are RUMINANT.
Step 2: Pick up your I Pad.
Step 3: Select the QR Code reader AP.
Step 4: Scan (hover over the code) to see if you are right!

What is a digestive tract?
Differences in Ruminant/Non-Ruminant Digestive Tracts


1. They have a 4-compartmental stomach designed to digest plant matter (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum).
2. They have a large fermentation vat full of microbes.
3. Ruminant examples include; Cattle, sheep, camels, giraffes and goats.
4. Ruminants are normally herbivorous.
5. Ruminants can regurgitate.


1. They have 1 simple stomach meaning they lack the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum.
2. They do not have a large fermentation vat full of microbes (but some do have caecums).
3. Non-ruminant examples include; humans, lions, chimpanzees and, domestic dogs and many more!
4. Almost all non-ruminant animals are carnivorous or omnivorous.
5. Non-ruminants cannot regurgitate.

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