Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Chapter 2: Infant & Toddler Development

An overview of the different physical, cognitive, and socioemotional tasks that an individual accomplishes during early childhood, as well as information on child-rearing practices and child care facilities.
by

Amanda Kendig

on 18 September 2012

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Chapter 2: Infant & Toddler Development

By Ashly Huffstatler, Amanda Kendig, Karma Kennedy, & Pamela Willson Chapter 2: Infant & Toddler Development Section 1 By age 18 – 24 months children can speak 50 to 200 words
Research indicates that all early infants are capable of recognizing and making sounds from a wide range of languages
Repeated interactions with caregivers and family members strengthen the neural connection for sounds of home environment language Prelangauge Six Substages Continued
5.) Tertiary Circular Reactions ( 12 to 18 months)
The child becomes more creative in eliciting responses and are better problem solvers
Will push a button until something happens
6.) Mental Reorientation (18 months to 2 years)
Able to use thinking by retaining mental images for things that are not in front of them
Moving other toys around in a toy chest for a specific toy Piaget’s Stages: Sensorimotor Responds to immediate stimuli
Six substages:
1.) Reflex activity (birth to 1 month)
Reflexes are what an infant can do at that point
This becomes the foundation of future learning
2.) Primary Circular Reaction (1 to 4 months)
Repeat behaviors that bring positive response and pleasure
Holds up head or lifts up chest Piaget’s Stages: Sensorimotor Brain Development
Neurons – specialized nerve cells that store and transmit information
Synapses – gaps between neurons that function as the site of information exchange form one neuron to another
During the first 3 years the brain triples in weight
Evidence shows that the genetic processes and early influences with the environment influences the timing of the brain development
Exposure to speech in the first year of life expedites the discrimination of speech sound
Risks associated with prematurity include cognitive and motor development
Cerebral palsy and mental retardation Physical Development Motor Skills Motor Skills:
The ability to move and manipulate
The development of motor skills on a continuous process
Video Physical Development Reflexes: The involuntary response to stimuli.
Rooting reflex – the infant will turn their head in the direction of a touch on their face
Sucking reflex – the infant will suck on an object presented to his/her face
These reflexes help the infant to feed Physical Development Taste & Smell:
Begin to function in the uterus
Newborns can differentiate between sweet, bitter, sour, and salty tastes
Sweet tastes seem to have a soothing effect on both pre- and full-term newborns
Touch:
CRITICAL to infant development
Swaddling is used to soothe babies
Gentle rocking and stroking is effective in soothing low birth weight babies
Develops and hones attachment (we’ll discuss this later) Sensory Systems Hearing:
Sensitive to auditory stimulation in the uterus
Infants will hear the mother’s heartbeat and finds it soothing in the weeks after birth
Vision:
Infant’s vision will improve rapidly during the first few months
By 4 months old, the infant will be able to see objects the same way an adult would Sensory Systems Even in the womb, infants are already developing sensory systsms.
6 Senses include:
Hearing
Sight
Taste
Smell
Touch
Sensitivity to pain Sensory Systems Infants can sleep with parents
Sleep in their own beds in their own rooms
Some cultures consider this neglect
Co-sleeping with parents is routine in most cultures Patterns Before birth body functions are regulated by the mother’s body
Challenging bodily functions
Temperature control
Sleeping
Eating
Eliminating wastes
This challenge can be heightened for premature or medically fragile infant
Infants are not born with regular patterns of sleeping, eating, and eliminating wastes
There are cultural variations and controversies in the way that caregivers shape these patterns Self Regulation Developmental Niche: Guides every aspect of developmental process
3 components to developmental niche
Physical and social settings of everyday life
Childrearing customs
Caretaker philosophy
In wealthy post industrial nations
There are smaller families
More attention is given to each child
Parents take courses and read books
The baby industry – baby monitors, special toys Development and Culture 3 areas of development:
Physical
Cognitive
Socioemotional Healthy Development in Infants & Toddlers Prelanguage Six Substages Continued:
3.) Secondary Circular Reactions (4 to 8 months)
Performs acts and behaviors that bring a response
The infant will move his/her arm and the rattle makes a sound
4.) Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions (8 to 12 months)
Mastery of object permanence
Ability to understand that an object or person exists even when they don’t see it
Stranger anxiety
Reacts with fear and withdrawal from unfamiliar persons
Separation anxiety
Able to remember previous separations and becomes anxious when sees signs of impending separation Piaget’s Stages: Sensorimotor Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Cognition – the ability to process and store information
The infant is “wired to learn”
Infants have a drive to learn and interact with their environment Cognitive Development Physical Development Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 The birth of a child is a big transition for parents but also for the extended family
Certain ideas of “how it should be done” are always passed from one generation to another.
Many of the ideas were developed over time based on 30 years past or more based on the concept of “this is how my mother did it and how I did it”. Always advice on top of the stress of “this is what my Doctor has said”. Conflicts between generations. Infants & Toddlers in Multigenerational Families NAEYC: National Association for the Education of Young Children
Mission: “To serve and act on behalf of the needs, rights and well-being of all young children with primary focus on the provision of educational and developmental services and resources (NAEYC Bylaws, Article I., Section 1.1)” (NAEYC, 2012).
Accreditation Standards: http://www.naeyc.org/files/academy/file/OverviewStandards.pdf NAEYC We all start off in a dependent state.
At this time the term “working mother” is a normal term.
In early 1990’s there was no such thing as the Family Leave Act introduced in 1993.
Business with more than 50 employees would allow up to 12 weeks leave unpaid.
2002 United States and Australia were the only two prosperous countries that did not offer paid leave nor even have paternal leave of absence. Family Leave Important for parent/child interaction increases the secure attachment to parent.
Never forget that even though and infant doesn’t speak, they understand especial parents
All parents are teachers of sensitivity and “rough and tumble” play.
Differences between mother and father are significant to what they are teaching their child
Play develops Social Relationships The Role of Play This concept has been in place since time began. In the early days of the United States, there was no such thing as formula at the local Wal-Mart to go and pick up.
Wet nurses were used, often milk from a cow or goat if necessary.
Today attitudes have changed and the decision that breastfeeding is the better way to go.
Different cultures seek the advice from family members as to what they should do.
Nursing does seem to benefit the infant’s immunity, decrease risk of obesity during adolescence. (If for only 6 months)
Doctors do dissuade nursing if HIV, STD, drug abuse, or cancer is diagnosed Breastfeeding vs. Bottle Feeding Many parents in the 1950-60 were “domestic housewives”. They took care of the children.
Outside the home.
It is thought that the childcare in Europe is an ideal model called “Universal” childcare.
Children are cared for despite parent’s income, employment status, race, which intern brings up the case that the Europeans pay far less in daycare. Paid Childcare Part 2 Child Care Arrangements in Infancy & toddlerhood Autism Spectrum Disorder impairs social and communication development and repetitive and restricted behaviors. These symptoms vary based on the child.
Not diagnosed until 3 or 4 years but symptoms start as early as 2 years.
Often early detection may improve the outcomes for infant and toddlers.
CDC recommends screening every 4-6 months until 30 months of age.
Also recommend universal screening specifically at 18 and 24 months Developmental Disruptions Evaluations of child development is difficult especially those with disabilities.
Most children develop in their own time (walking, talking, potty training, etc.)
Physical and cognitive abilities have be known to be genetic, environmental factors
Cause of most are unknown
Must assess Multidimensional (child, family and the environment) Developmental Disruptions Fergus Hughes’ Toy Suggestions Historically thought insignificant. Now that idea has changed.
Different ages play differently at 4 different levels
Infants: vocal, interactive, exploratory, baby games
Toddlers: functional, constructive and make-believe
Stimulate infants and toddlers with an opportunity to play
Fergus Hughes (2010, pg.68) suggests appropriate toys for infant and toddlers The Role of Play Emotional causality (negative, positive)
Social Brain contingent upon contact.
Can these brain impairments be changed?
Jeopardized if 2-3 years irreversible.
Gerhardt’s advice was simple to avoid this happening to any newborn. Attachment & Brain Development Primary concern is not that day care is harmful rather that needs to be the quality of the care.
Staff ratios have now been set up by the National Research Council.
The ratios are staff/child ratio: 1:3 Infants, 1-4 toddlers, and 1-18 preschoolers
The staff should receive training and development based on age Paid Childcare According to Gerhardt (2004) and others they have found that Brain development has a direct link that affects brain development.
Without bonding with an adult the orbital cortex cannot develop properly. Attachment & Brain Development Some mother’s become depressed after childbirth-social factors do contribute and the hormonal changes to which some women are more sensitive too.
UK requires 7 visits from midwives in the first two weeks of postpartum.
If the mother does suffer from postpartum it will impair cognitive, emotional and motor-development of the infant
There are social support location and pharmacology available for these new mothers
Research show that the male partner may also suffer with his wife’s postpartum. He is at risk for depression, anxiety and abusing alcohol. Postpartum Depression Brain Development
& Childcare Risks to Healthy Development The most common reporter of abuse or neglect is...? Abuse & Neglect The DFPS 2011 Data Book reports:
Fiscal year September 1, 2010-August 31, 2011
Took 642,320 calls regarding abuse/neglect
25% turnover rate Abuse & Neglect Child Maltreatment
Safety Measures
Greater scrutiny of risk factors
(review Risk Assessment tool)
Expanded education of risk factors
Child Fatality Review Team
(discuss their job)
Child Safety Screeners
(discuss) Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment:
What's the Big Deal??
TX Department of Family and Protective Services reports:
In 1997, 107 children died as a result of abuse or neglect
In 1998, 176 childrn died as a resulf of abuse or neglect
36% had prior CPS involvement
(http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Keeping_Children_Safe/fatalities.asp Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment:
Report: A report that alleged or suspected abuse or neglect of a child has occurred or may occur.
Board: The Board of Protective and Regulatory Services. Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment:
Refusal to Accept Parental Responsibility
the failure by the person responsible for a child's care, custody, or welfare to permit the child to return to the child's home without arranging for the necessary care for the child after the child has been absent from the home for any reason, including having been in residential placement or having run away.
"Person responsible for a child's care, custody, or welfare" means a person who traditionally is responsible for a child's care, custody, or welfare, including:
a parent, guardian, managing or possessory conservator, or foster parent of the child
a member of the child's family or household
a person with whom the child's parent cohabits
school personnel or a volunteer at the child's school
personnel or a volunteer at a public or
private child-care facility that provides services for the child or at a public or private residential institution or facility
  Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment
Medical Neglect:
failing to seek, obtain, or follow through with medical care for a child
failure resulting in or presenting a substantial risk of death, disfigurement, or bodily injury
failure resulting in an observable and material impairment to the growth, development, or functioning of the child. Risks to Development Child Maltreatment:
Neglectful Supervision
the following acts or omissions by a person:
placing a child in or failing to remove a child from a situation that a reasonable person would realize requires judgment or actions beyond the child's level of maturity, physical condition, or mental abilities and that results in bodily njury or a substantial risk of immediate harm to the child
placing a child in or failing to remove the child from a situation in which the child would be exposed to a substantial risk of sexual conduct harmful to the child
placing a child in or failing to remove the child from a situation in which the child would be exposed to acts or omissions that constitute abuse under
Medical Neglect Risks to Development Child Maltreatment:
Physical Neglect:
the failure to provide a child with food, clothing, or shelter necessary to sustain the life or health of the child
excluding failure caused primarily by financial inability unless relief services had been offered and refused; Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Sexual Abuse:
Sexual conduct harmful to a child's mental, emotional, or physical welfare, including conduct that constitutes the offense of indecency with a child, Penal Code, sexual assault, or aggravated sexual assault failure to make a reasonable effort to prevent sexual conduct harmful to a child
Compelling or encouraging the child to engage in sexual conduct causing, permitting, encouraging, engaging in, or allowing the photographing, filming, or depicting of the child if the person knew or should have known that the resulting photograph, film, or depiction of the child is obscene as defined by
causing, permitting, encouraging, engaging in, or allowing a sexual performance by a child Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Physical Abuse Examples:
the current use by a person of a controlled substance as defined by Chapter 481, Health and Safety Code, in a manner or to the extent that the use results in physical, mental, or emotional injury to a child
causing, expressly permitting, or encouraging a child to use a controlled substance as defined by Chapter 481, Health and Safety Code
"Born addicted to alcohol or a controlled substance" means a child:
who is born to a mother who during the pregnancy used a controlled substance, as defined by Chapter 481, Health and Safety Code, other than a controlled substance legally obtained by prescription, or alcohol; and who, after birth as a result of the mother's use of the controlled substance or alcohol
experiences observable withdrawal from the alcohol or controlled substance
exhibits observable or harmful effects in the child's physical appearance or functioning
exhibits the demonstrable presence of alcohol or a controlled substance in the child's bodily fluids. Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Physical Abuse:
Physical injury that results in
Substantial harm to the child
Genuine threat of substantial harm from physical injury to the child, including an injury that is at variance with the history or explanation given and excluding an accident or reasonable discipline by a parent, guardian, or managing or possessory conservator that does not expose the child to a substantial risk of harm
Failure to make a reasonable effort to prevent an action by another person that results in physical injury that results in substantial harm to the child. Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Emotional Abuse:
Mental or emotional injury to a child that results in an observable and material impairment in the child's growth, development, or psychological functioning.
Causing or permitting the child to be in a situation in which the child sustains a mental or emotional injury that results in an observable and material impairment in the child's growth, development, or psychological functioning. Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
The Texas Family code classifies “Abuse” as
Emotional Abuse
Physical Abuse
Sexual Abuse
Physical Neglect
Neglectful Supervision
Medical Neglect
Refusal to Accept Parental Responsiblity Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
Seifer and Dickstein, 2000 concluded:
Parental mental illness increases likelihood of mental health problems among their children
Mothers who are depressed are more negative in their interactions with their infants
Infants with depressed mothers are more negative in their exchange with their mothers
There is an association between parental mental illness and secure attachment
Depressed mothers view their infant's behavior as more negative than non-depressed mothers Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
Parental factors contributing to development of NOFTT:
Maternal depression
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy
Marital problems
Mental illness and/or substance abuse in primary caretaker. Risks to Human Development Poverty:
Link between poverty and infant mortality (death before first birthday):
Generally infant mortality rates highest in the poorest countries
In the US:
rates higher among the poor
rate among African Americans is twice that of European Americans
low birth rate as a result of inadequate prenatal care primary factor Risks to Human Development Class Discussion: What specific risks do infants and toddlers face when living in poverty?
Poverty:
does not equal Abuse
does not equal Neglect
equals RISK Risks to Healthy Development Poverty:
You do the MATH.
Minimum Wage = $7.75
x 40 = $310/wk
x 4 = $1240/month Risks to Healthy Development Poverty
Where do low-income families live?
52% rural areas
49% urban areas
35% suburban areas Risks to Healthy Development Poverty
Inadequate Caregiving
Child Maltreatment Risks to Healthy Development So far we have covered several issues contributing to healthy development of infants and toddlers:
Opportunity for development
Interaction/Stimulation
Love
Attachment (brain development)
Safety (child care, home life)
Healthy Parent(s)
Nutrition Introduction to Risk School Personnel with a reporting average of 17.7% Abuse & Neglect In 2011, Texas child population of 6,663,942
297,971 alleged victims of abuse/neglect
98,435 children in confirmed cases of abuse/neglect
17,108 children removed Abuse & Neglect Child Maltreatment:
In 2007, 794,000 children in US assessed to be victims of abuse or neglect
Classifications:
SXAB
PHAB
EMAB
PHNG
MDNG Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
Parental mental illness and depression are associated with other problems among infants and toddlers as well:
Infants of depressed mothers demonstrate less positive expressions of mood and personality
Less attentive in play
Demonstrate less joy, even when securely attached Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
NOFTT- Nonorganic failure to thrive – infants, usually 3 to 12 months, who show poor development, primarily in terms of weight gain.
Weigh less than 80%of the ideal weight for their age
Lack of medical cause
Thought to be a consequence of environmental neglect and stimulus deprivation Risks to Human Development Poverty
In the U.S. The National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP) estimates that families need an income of about 2 times the U.S. Federal poverty level to meet BASIC needs.
21% of children in the US live in families below the poverty level
Half of infants and toddlers living in low-income families have at least one parent who works full-time year-round. Risks to Healthy Development All Scandinavian countries child poverty rate less than 5%
Most European countries rate between 5% and 10% Risks to Healthy Development Poverty:
children birth to age 3 have the highest rate of impoverishment around the world
What do you think are some contributing factors to this in the US?
What's different here than in other countries?
Bellamy (2204) reports that statistically 1 in 2 children across the world live in poverty
US has second highest rate among industrialized nations of children living in poverty Risks to Healthy Development School Personnel with a reporting average of 17.7% Abuse & Neglect In 2011, Texas child population of 6,663,942
297,971 alleged victims of abuse/neglect
98,435 children in confirmed cases of abuse/neglect
17,108 children removed Abuse & Neglect The DFPS 2011 Data Book reports:
Fiscal year September 1, 2010-August 31, 2011
Took 642,320 calls regarding abuse/neglect
25% turnover rate Abuse & Neglect Child Maltreatment
Safety Measures
Greater scrutiny of risk factors
(review Risk Assessment tool)
Expanded education of risk factors
Child Fatality Review Team
(discuss their job)
Child Safety Screeners
(discuss) Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment:
What's the Big Deal??
TX Department of Family and Protective Services reports:
In 1997, 107 children died as a result of abuse or neglect
In 1998, 176 childrn died as a resulf of abuse or neglect
36% had prior CPS involvement
(http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/Keeping_Children_Safe/fatalities.asp Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment:
Refusal to Accept Parental Responsibility
the failure by the person responsible for a child's care, custody, or welfare to permit the child to return to the child's home without arranging for the necessary care for the child after the child has been absent from the home for any reason, including having been in residential placement or having run away.
"Person responsible for a child's care, custody, or welfare" means a person who traditionally is responsible for a child's care, custody, or welfare, including:
a parent, guardian, managing or possessory conservator, or foster parent of the child
a member of the child's family or household
a person with whom the child's parent cohabits
school personnel or a volunteer at the child's school
personnel or a volunteer at a public or
private child-care facility that provides services for the child or at a public or private residential institution or facility
  Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment
Medical Neglect:
failing to seek, obtain, or follow through with medical care for a child
failure resulting in or presenting a substantial risk of death, disfigurement, or bodily injury
failure resulting in an observable and material impairment to the growth, development, or functioning of the child. Risks to Development Child Maltreatment:
Neglectful Supervision
the following acts or omissions by a person:
placing a child in or failing to remove a child from a situation that a reasonable person would realize requires judgment or actions beyond the child's level of maturity, physical condition, or mental abilities and that results in bodily njury or a substantial risk of immediate harm to the child
placing a child in or failing to remove the child from a situation in which the child would be exposed to a substantial risk of sexual conduct harmful to the child
placing a child in or failing to remove the child from a situation in which the child would be exposed to acts or omissions that constitute abuse under
Medical Neglect Risks to Development Child Maltreatment:
Physical Neglect:
the failure to provide a child with food, clothing, or shelter necessary to sustain the life or health of the child
excluding failure caused primarily by financial inability unless relief services had been offered and refused; Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Sexual Abuse:
Sexual conduct harmful to a child's mental, emotional, or physical welfare, including conduct that constitutes the offense of indecency with a child, Penal Code, sexual assault, or aggravated sexual assault failure to make a reasonable effort to prevent sexual conduct harmful to a child
Compelling or encouraging the child to engage in sexual conduct causing, permitting, encouraging, engaging in, or allowing the photographing, filming, or depicting of the child if the person knew or should have known that the resulting photograph, film, or depiction of the child is obscene as defined by
causing, permitting, encouraging, engaging in, or allowing a sexual performance by a child Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Physical Abuse Examples:
the current use by a person of a controlled substance as defined by Chapter 481, Health and Safety Code, in a manner or to the extent that the use results in physical, mental, or emotional injury to a child
causing, expressly permitting, or encouraging a child to use a controlled substance as defined by Chapter 481, Health and Safety Code
"Born addicted to alcohol or a controlled substance" means a child:
who is born to a mother who during the pregnancy used a controlled substance, as defined by Chapter 481, Health and Safety Code, other than a controlled substance legally obtained by prescription, or alcohol; and who, after birth as a result of the mother's use of the controlled substance or alcohol
experiences observable withdrawal from the alcohol or controlled substance
exhibits observable or harmful effects in the child's physical appearance or functioning
exhibits the demonstrable presence of alcohol or a controlled substance in the child's bodily fluids. Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Physical Abuse:
Physical injury that results in
Substantial harm to the child
Genuine threat of substantial harm from physical injury to the child, including an injury that is at variance with the history or explanation given and excluding an accident or reasonable discipline by a parent, guardian, or managing or possessory conservator that does not expose the child to a substantial risk of harm
Failure to make a reasonable effort to prevent an action by another person that results in physical injury that results in substantial harm to the child. Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
Emotional Abuse:
Mental or emotional injury to a child that results in an observable and material impairment in the child's growth, development, or psychological functioning.
Causing or permitting the child to be in a situation in which the child sustains a mental or emotional injury that results in an observable and material impairment in the child's growth, development, or psychological functioning. Risks to Human Development Child Maltreatment:
In 2007, 794,000 children in US assessed to be victims of abuse or neglect
Classifications:
SXAB
PHAB
EMAB
PHNG
MDNG Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
Seifer and Dickstein, 2000 concluded:
Parental mental illness increases likelihood of mental health problems among their children
Mothers who are depressed are more negative in their interactions with their infants
Infants with depressed mothers are more negative in their exchange with their mothers
There is an association between parental mental illness and secure attachment
Depressed mothers view their infant's behavior as more negative than non-depressed mothers Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
Parental mental illness and depression are associated with other problems among infants and toddlers as well:
Infants of depressed mothers demonstrate less positive expressions of mood and personality
Less attentive in play
Demonstrate less joy, even when securely attached Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
Parental factors contributing to development of NOFTT:
Maternal depression
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy
Marital problems
Mental illness and/or substance abuse in primary caretaker. Risks to Human Development Inadequate Caregiving:
NOFTT- Nonorganic failure to thrive – infants, usually 3 to 12 months, who show poor development, primarily in terms of weight gain.
Weigh less than 80%of the ideal weight for their age
Lack of medical cause
Thought to be a consequence of environmental neglect and stimulus deprivation Risks to Human Development Poverty:
Link between poverty and infant mortality (death before first birthday):
Generally infant mortality rates highest in the poorest countries
In the US:
rates higher among the poor
rate among African Americans is twice that of European Americans
low birth rate as a result of inadequate prenatal care primary factor Risks to Human Development Class Discussion: What specific risks do infants and toddlers face when living in poverty?
Poverty:
does not equal Abuse
does not equal Neglect
equals RISK Risks to Healthy Development Poverty:
You do the MATH.
Minimum Wage = $7.75
x 40 = $310/wk
x 4 = $1240/month Risks to Healthy Development Poverty
In the U.S. The National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP) estimates that families need an income of about 2 times the U.S. Federal poverty level to meet BASIC needs.
21% of children in the US live in families below the poverty level
Half of infants and toddlers living in low-income families have at least one parent who works full-time year-round. Risks to Healthy Development Poverty
Where do low-income families live?
52% rural areas
49% urban areas
35% suburban areas Risks to Healthy Development Poverty:
children birth to age 3 have the highest rate of impoverishment around the world
What do you think are some contributing factors to this in the US?
What's different here than in other countries?
Bellamy (2204) reports that statistically 1 in 2 children across the world live in poverty
US has second highest rate among industrialized nations of children living in poverty Risks to Healthy Development Poverty
Inadequate Caregiving
Child Maltreatment Risks to Healthy Development So far we have covered several issues contributing to healthy development of infants and toddlers:
Opportunity for development
Interaction/Stimulation
Love
Attachment (brain development)
Safety (child care, home life)
Healthy Parent(s)
Nutrition Introduction to Risk Risk Present The most common reporter of abuse or neglect is...? Abuse & Neglect Child Maltreatment:
Report: A report that alleged or suspected abuse or neglect of a child has occurred or may occur.
Board: The Board of Protective and Regulatory Services. Risks to Healthy Development Child Maltreatment:
The Texas Family code classifies “Abuse” as
Emotional Abuse
Physical Abuse
Sexual Abuse
Physical Neglect
Neglectful Supervision
Medical Neglect
Refusal to Accept Parental Responsiblity Risks to Human Development All Scandinavian countries child poverty rate less than 5%
Most European countries rate between 5% and 10% Risks to Healthy Development Goodness of Fit: How well the infant’s temperament matches with that of parents, caregivers, and siblings is crucial to the infant’s emotional development
Directly affects regulatory capacity
Positive correlation between infant’s regulatory capacity and parents’ marital satisfaction
Regulatory Capacity: Ability to self-regulate behavior and engage in self-soothing
Studies have been done to determine cultural/socioeconomic differences and how those concepts affect regulatory capacity, but most studies contradict each other. Temperament Emotional control: Coping skills developed by infants to handle both positive and negative intense feelings
By 2nd year, infants make an active effort to avoid or disregard situations that arouse strong emotions
Move away
Distract themselves
Self-soothing: thumb sucking, rocking, stroking, reassuring self-talk
Common coping mechanisms:
Turning head away
Sucking on hands or lips
Closing eyes Emotional Control Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt:
Ages 1 ½ - 3
Autonomy: Ability to complete tasks independently and take initiative.
Characteristics of Autonomy:
Independence
Growing sense of self-awareness
Self control
Achieve a sense of pride from the tasks that they can perform
Relate with people in the environment and can begin to exercise self-control. Psychosocial Development Socioemotional
Development Insecure Attachment:
3 types: Anxious/Ambivalent, Avoidant, and Disorganized
1.) Anxious/Ambivalent: Child cries for extreme duration of time when caregiver leaves. When the caregiver returns, the child is unable to find comfort in the caregiver’s presence. This evidenced doubt in relationship.
2.) Avoidant: Infants seem indifferent to the presence of caregiver. Whether the caregiver was present or absent from the room, these children’s responses are the same.
3.) Disorganized: These children display contradictory behavior. They attempt physical closeness, but retreat with acts of avoidance. Most likely the child of a depressed or abused mother. Ainsworth’s Theory of Attachment
Five Attachment Types:
Secure
Insecure
Anxious/Ambivalent
Avoidant
Disorganized Ainsworth’s Theory of Attachment Clear-cut Attachment:
First time infants will display separation anxiety
Infant might cry or fuss when primary caregiver leaves
Goal-corrected Attachment:
Attachments that are refocused and reshaped in order to better fit needs
Can happen over a long period of time
Ability to talk and express attachment concerns Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Preattachment:
Baby signals needs to caregiver by using survival actions.
Caregiver attends to infant’s needs and remains near as infant responds
Attachment in the Making:
When caregiver responds, trust is built
Infants respond more positively to a caregiver that is familiar
First demonstrate the ability to be separated from caregiver Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Bowlby’s 4 stages of attachment:
Preattachment
Attachment in the making
Clear-cut attachment
Goal-corrected attachment
Earliest form of attachment becomes the child’s working model for all other relationships
Transitional Objects: Objects that toddlers use to comfort them, to help them cope with separations, and to handle other stressful situations. Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Attachment: The ability to form emotional bonds with other people
One of the most important issues in infant development.
Attachment is the foundation for emotional development and a predictor of later relational functioning
A natural result of the infant’s instinct for survival
Infant initiates; caregiver’s response is what strengthens the bond
Two attachment theories:
Bowlby
Ainsworth Attachment Thomas, Chess, and Birch Research:
9 Components of Temperament:
Activity Level
Regularity of biological functions
Initial reaction to any new stimulus
Adaptability
Intensity of reaction
Level of stimulation needed to evoke a discernible response
Quality of mood
Distractibility
Attention span or persistence Temperament Temperament: The individual’s innate disposition.
Appears shortly after birth and is set, or remains unchanged throughout life.
Recent research indicates a stable pattern of temperament is not evident until about 4 months.
Study of Alexander Thomas, Stella Chess, and Herbert Birch discovered 3 different types of temperament
Study focused on 2 clusters of temperamental traits: negative emotions & regulatory capacity
Negative Emotions: Irritability, fear, sadness, shyness, frustration, and discomfort
More significant than temperament is “goodness of fit”
Experts have agreed that:
There is some stability to a child’s positive or negative reactions to environmental events.
This stability of reaction leads to patterned reactions from others. Temperament Elements of Emotional Control:
One of the most important elements in managing emotions is the assistance provided by the caregiver.
Offering food/pacifier
Swaddling, cuddling, hugging, rocking
Vocalization and distraction by 6 months
Most effective methods regardless of age:
Holding
Rocking
Vocalizing
Cultural Differences also exist for expectations for management of emotions in infants
There are differences in how much independence infants and toddlers are expected to exercise in managing emotions. Emotional Control Sources of anxiety for toddlers:
Difficulty understanding what is happening
Difficulty communicating
Frustration over not being able to do what others can do or what they imagine others can do
Conflicts between wanting to be independent and wanting their parents’ help
Separation or threat of separation from caregivers
Fears of losing parental approval and love
Reactions to losing self-control
Anxieties about the body
Consequences of Doubt:
Fear a loss of love
Overly concerned about parent’s approval
Ashamed of their abilities
Develop unhealthy kind of self-consciousness Psychosocial Development How to help toddlers achieve autonomy:
Need a combination of firm limits for controlling impulses and anxieties, as well as freedom to explore
Need an environment rich with stimuli
Adults need to offer praise and encouragement Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust:
Birth – 1 1/2
Develop a sense that their needs will be met by outside world, and the outside world is an “okay” place to be.
First time an individual develops an emotional bond with an adult.
This relationship is the foundation for secure future relationships
Most important facilitator for growth is consistency in having physical and emotional needs met.
Examples: Being fed when hungry, being kept warm/dry, being allowed undisturbed sleep, protection from injury, disease, etc., and receive adequate stimulation
This reliability develops trust. Psychosocial Development Development Milestones Socioemotional Development: Developmental tasks associated with the emotional arena.
Development that occurs in infancy can affect socioemotional development for the rest of an individual’s life.
These stages of development can be categorized into specific milestones. What is Socioemotional Development? “The Strange Situation” Experiment Attachment Secure Attachment:
Child cries when caregiver leaves, but seek comfort from caregiver when they return.
Child is easily reassured and soothed by caregiver when they return Ainsworth’s Theory of Attachment Consequences of Mistrust:
Infants who do not achieve a sense of trust:
Become suspicious of the world
Withdraw
React with rage
Develop deep seated feelings of dependency
These infants lack core traits necessary for healthy emotional development
Drive, hope, and motivation for growth
Cannot trust environment
Unable to form intimate relationships with others. Psychosocial Development Erik Erikson: Created a theory that explains socioemotional development in terms of stages.
Each stage requires mastery of a developmental task to move forward to a different stage. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Thomas, Chess, and Birch Research:
3 types of Temperament:
Easy: Good mood, regular patterns of eating and sleeping, and general calmness
Slow to Warm Up: Few intense reactions, either positive or negative, low in activity level
Difficult: Negative mood, irregular sleeping and eating patterns, difficulty adapting to new people and experiences Temperament Hepworth, D.H., Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., & Strom- Gottfried, K. (2010). Direct social work practice: Theory and skills. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Texas Family Code, Title 5, § 261.001 Definitions (last modified August 11, 2007).
Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, Risk Assessment Form 2049.
Texas Department of Family and Protective Services 2011 Annual Report and Data Book, http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/documents/about/Data_B ooks_and_Annual_Reports/2011/Combined11.pdf, pp.32-74. References References
Full transcript