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"...Ergonomics Intro..."

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Jose Cerdán

on 7 April 2014

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Transcript of "...Ergonomics Intro..."

"...Empowering Ergonomics at Workplace..."
Ergonomics is the study of people in relation to their work place

Improves the interaction between humans and the machines they use for work


Reduces injuries
Improves quality of life in the workplace
Improvements are often not expensive
*WMSD: work-related musculoskeletal disease

What we will cover:
Purpose – Office Ergonomics
How to setup comfortable workstation – using a step-by-step guide

Determine what office equipment is best to meet the needs of different individuals

Identify ways to reduce WMSD* risk
What’s the problem with sitting all day?

Which WMSD risk factors exist in an office setting?

Office Ergonomics

Highly repetitive motions with little recovery time

Awkward postures (hands, arms, wrists, neck, shoulder, legs)

Static muscle loading

Visual/Mental demands - constant attention, stress

Contact stress (thighs, arms, palms)

Office Ergonomic Risk Factors
Stressors in the Office
How many computers do you interact with? (office, home, and travel)

Like activities (i.e., video games, musical instruments, hobbies)

Duration exposure today in children
Office Locations or Similar Activities
Employee is wearing wrist splints

Home-made modifications are observed

Mouse not on the same level as the keyboard

Reaching for the mouse

Elbow's are not at 90 degrees, wrists are deviated

Employee is leaning forward

Poor Office Ergonomics
Assessment Indicators
Employee looks uncomfortable


feet are not supported

legs do not fit under the desk

knees are touching the keyboard tray

shoulders are hunched up

Poor Office Ergonomics
Assessment Indicators (continued)
Ergonomics Working Plan should include:

Illustrated guidelines on how to adjust workstation

Information on how to organize work area and tasks

Checklists to evaluate a workstation

Specification lists when purchasing new equipment

Creating the Ideal Workstation
A Step-by-Step Guide
Other input devices
Document holder

Work Area
Chair – seat
Chair – backrest

Creating the Ideal Workstation
A Step-by-Step Guide
Enough space to perform all tasks

Allows you to place items you use most directly in front of you

Comfortable room temperature
1. The Work Area
Your shoulders are relaxed

Your upper arms are close to your body

The angle between upper arm and forearm is 75° - 135 °

2. The Desk

Adjustable surface

Desktop is a matte finish

Adjustable keyboard tray

55-70 cm from the floor

2. The Desk Adjustable Keyboard Tray

55 to 70cm

2. The Desk: Under-desk Clearance

Acceptable under-desk clearance

43 cm for knees

60 cm for feet

50,5 cm minimum width

50,5 cm wide

feet: 60 cm

knees: 43 cm

75 °- 135 °

3. The Chair

Easily adjustable (with one hand)

Controls are easily reached

Seat height

Seat pan length

Seat pan slope



Provide immediate feedback

Operation of the controls are logical and consistent

Seat height adjustment

3. The Chair – Seat

Adjustable desk

Feet are flat on the floor

Back is supported

Then adjust your desk

Non-adjustable desk

Adjust your chair to comfort

Feet may not touch floor – then add foot rest

Ideal Seat height

Crease behind knee is slightly above the seat

Minimum adjustment height: 40 to 51 cm

3. The Chair – Seat
Seat Pan Length

Length = 38 to 43 cm

With your back against the seat, the front edge of seat pan should not touch the crease of knee

Seat Pan – too short

Inadequate thigh support

Leads to whole body discomfort

Seat Pan – too long

Longer than buttock-knee length leads to leg discomfort

Forces you to sit forward away from the backrest

3. The Chair – Seat

Seat Pan Slope

Adjustable range that allows for 5° of tilt (forward and backward)

Should lock into position

4. The Chair – Backrest

Surface minimum of 30 to 38 cm wide

Contour to the curve of your lower back

Large enough to support entire back

Have a forward and backward tilt (minimum of 15°)

Extend high enough to support upper trunk, head, and neck when leaning back

Allows for natural body movements

Contains a lumbar (lower back) support

Vertical seat back adjustment (15 to 25 cm above seat)
4. The Chair – Backrest

Vertical seat back

4. The Chair – Armrests
Adjustable armrests

Minimum of 40 cm apart

Vertically adjustable to match their height to your elbows at rest

Armrest height and desk or keyboard height is the same

Armrests should be:

Long enough to support forearm

Wide enough to support forearm

Padded and soft


Temporary fix: old phone books or binders

Needed if your feet do not rest flat with a correctly adjusted chair. It should be:


Does not restrict leg movement

Easily removed

As wide as your hips

Large enough for the soles of both feet

Has a nonskid surface

5. The Footrest
6. The Monitor

Tilts vertically

Swivels horizontally

If you wear bifocals, lower monitor to avoid neck tilt

Monitor position

Gaze slightly down to view center of screen (top of monitor at eye height)

40 cm minimum from eyes to screen

User preferred viewing distances:
60-80 cm

7. The Keyboard
7. The Keyboard (continued)
Keep your wrist floating, but keep forearms supported on armrests

Wrist and palm rests:

Reminds you to keep your wrist straight or only slightly bent

Intended for a wrist rest between typing, not continually

7. The Keyboard
Located directly in immediate reach zone

Shoulders relaxed at side

Positioned as close to your body as your keyboard

Housed together with your keyboard on an adjustable work surface or tray

8. The Mouse
To exercise eyes: place holder at different distance

Needed if you refer to printed materials often. It should be:


Easily adjustable (height, position, and angle)

Placed next to your screen at the same height or between your screen and keyboard
10. The Document Holder
Office ergonomic Work-related musculoskeletal system disorders (WMSD) risk factors exist in the office, home office, and temporary duty (TDY)

Potential solutions involve improving posture, reducing repetition, and minimizing duration

A good office setup/posture:

Eyes are level with top of monitor

Neck is not bent

Back is slightly reclined/no slouching

Shoulders are relaxed

Arms are supported

Forearm, wrists, hands are straight

Mouse is next to the keyboard

Knees are slightly higher than the hips

Feet are firmly supported

Optimov´s Ideal Computer Workstation: A Step-by-Step Guide

Common Problems in Office Ergonomics:

What says arbejdtilsynet:

Aged related declines in performance:


Ulnar deviation with keyboards:

Ergonomic Site
Seat Pan

Seat pan length adjustment

Seat pan slope = 5° tilt

Seat pan tilt adjustment

Minimum Tilt = 15°

Minimum 15 to 25 cm above seat pan

Lumbar seat back adjustment

Minimum of 40 cm apart

Armrest adjustment

Top of monitor at almost at eye height

Minimum distance = 40 cm

Images clear & stable

Brightness & contrast controls
Choose a keyboard with:

Independent angle adjustment

A thin profile to minimize wrist extension

A matte-finished surface

Adjust keyboard height:

To reduce tension, low enough so arms are relaxed at your sides

Angle between upper arm and forearm is 75° - 135°

75° - 135°
Adjust keyboard so that:

Wrists are bent no more than 5° left or right

Wrists are bent no more than 10° up or down

If keyboard is not adjustable or too low, use paper books to raise it up temporarily

If keyboard is too high, raise your chair or place some padding under your wrists to keep them from drooping

Wrists bent < 5° left or right

Wrists bent < 10° up or down

for more information
Website | www.optimov.com
Facebook | www.facebook.com/Optimov
Twitter | www.twitter.com/Optimov
Tel:+45 30 648 283
Thank you for your attention
Q & A
Full transcript