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Transcript of Developmental Disabilities
with a disability,
ask yourself what you see first-
the person or the disability.
When you look past the disabilities,
you see the abilities and discover
a new realm of possibilities.”
- unknown Characteristics:
Limited cognitive functioning
Slower rate of learning
Challenged by abstract and complex tasks
Delay in acquiring speech and/or language and nonverbal skills
Delay in gross and/or fine motor skills
Adaptive behavior challenges Identifying Students With Intellectual Disabilities CASE STUDY Modifications Developmental Disabilities Developmental Disability
and Developmental Delay-
are they synonymous? A developmental disability is:
a mental or physical disability that impairs the person's functioning in language, mobility, self-care, or other important areas of living. Developmental Delay: a delay in the development in any of the following areas:
social or emotional development
AND needs special education and/or related services They are NOT synonymous!
Developmental Delays are delays that a child has in reaching developmental goals by a certain age. If they receive early intervention, they may not develop a disability.
Developmental Disabilities are usually long-term diagnosis that will require intervention for extended periods of time. Federal definition as included in IDEIA 2004 is as follows: “significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance”.
Term intellectual disability is increasingly being used to refer to individuals with mental retardation.
In 2007, the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) officially changed its name to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD).
Recently, a more optimistic perspective about the quality of life for individuals with mental retardation has evolved. The term intellectual disabilities reflects this optimism. Mental Retardation In 2002, the AAMR defined mental retardation as a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.
In 2007, after becoming the AAIDD, they adapted the definition, and changed it to intellectual disability instead of mental retardation. Definition refers to the same group of individuals, but reflects language that is less offensive and more consistent with international terminology. Systems of support are the coordinated set of services and accommodations matched to a student’s needs and can include teachers and specialists, specialized programs and methodologies, and assistive technology.
Most recent (2007) definition is based on a theoretical framework including five dimensions where individuals with intellectual disabilities may need support:
a) Intellectual functioning in school and in daily living
b) Adaptive behavior
d) Participation in a variety of social, educational, and professional arenas
e) Environmental and personal contextual factors
Systems of support across all five dimensions should be considered in planning for optimal human functioning for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Your role in communicating and collaborating with families in positive and supportive ways is vital.
Families play an important role in assessment. This is evident in the IDEIA emphasis on the role of families in identifying and assessing students with disabilities and in planning for the students’ individual education programs.
Classroom teachers can also benefit from family input when students with developmental disabilities are included in their classrooms.
No one knows the student better than his or her family. Communicating and Collaborating with Families A paraprofessional or aide may be assigned to a student with disabilities for all or part of the school day. Your role is to plan curriculum and adaptations for all students in the classroom, frequently in collaboration with a special educator. Although paraprofessionals can be involved in the planning process, they should not take on that responsibility in isolation. With appropriate preparation and supervision, paraprofessionals can provide vital instructional roles. When a student is assigned a paraprofessional on a one-to-one basis, in-class isolation of the student with disabilities can result. Thus, you should also discuss specific strategies for using peer support and for developing meaningful interactions with peers to promote inclusion and information of friendship. Take ownership of students with disabilities by demonstrating that these students are members of the class that are valued. When this happens, students with disabilities develop a sense of belonging and being accepted
Become familiar with the full range of goals and objectives on the student’s IEP. Appropriate planning and adaptation for students with developmental disabilities requires careful analysis of tasks to be accomplished and some creativity. Having a strong command of the IEPs makes planning more fluent and systematic. Roles of the General Education Teacher Large print material
Word processor/spell checker; calculator
Assistance with note taking
Credit for class participation, effort and attendance
Additional time for test preparation
Review/testing matched to student pace
Test directions read/explained thoroughly
Test format allowing more space
Oral, short-answer, modified tests
One-to-one contact for at least 10-20 minutes daily
Assistance with organization and planning of classwork and/or homework
Emphasis on successes
Seating to reduce distractions
Clearly defined limits
Concrete, positive reinforcers Extended time for completion of assignments or tests
Additional time for reading assignments
Time for repeated review or drill
Reduction of paper/pencil tasks
Study sheets/summary sheets/outlines of most important facts
Supplemental aids (vocabulary, multiplication cards, etc.)
Presentation of material in small steps
Read or paraphrase subject matter
Instructions/directions given in different channels (written, spoken, demonstration)
Visual or multisensory materials
Functional level materials
Overhead/outline for desk use Accommodations Causes Physical:
Chromosomal Abnormalities (Down Syndrome)
Disorders of Brain Formation
Fragile X Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Low Birth Weight
Child abuse (Shaken Baby Syndrome)
Poverty (unsafe neighborhoods)
Lack of Stimulation
Lock of opportunities for development of communication, social, and adaptive skills. Task Analysis: We learned about this in class as a breakdown of each individual step or skill, with necessary adaptations.
The book talks about using a picture task analysis that provides visual cues of the steps of a task, rather than writing it down. This just gives the student important planning tools but in a visual sense rather than a written task. - We need to increase a students sense of belonging. When students can predict what is going to happen, they are more likely to feel a part of the classroom.
- We need to teach students with developmental disabilities safety routines. They may need direct instruction not only with emergency routines, but day to day routines.
Make environmental accommodations so that every student can participate successfully. An example would be having a bean bag chair in the room or raising the legs on a desk so a wheelchair can fit underneath.
Have hands-on activities: This allows students with DD to be actively involved in the classroom. This could be as simple as letting them do activities on a computer, as long as they have a chance to participate. Strategies to support students in the classroom - Peers can be an underrated and underused resource used in today’s classrooms.
- Nondisabled peers can be creative problem solvers and supporters of students with developmental disabilities. These peers can provide academic and social supports. Peer Support Quote The following supports may be assigned to the student for all or part of the day. Their goal is to help supplement the instruction.
Speech Therapist Personnel Support Writing friendly letters, postcards, and e-mails
Make a shopping list
Using a credit card
Reading a calendar
Labels on foods, medicines, and clothing
Newspapers and magazines Functional Tools and Activities http://www.godvine.com/Meet-America-s-Only-Restaurant-Owner-With-Down-Syndrome-2917.html?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=3-2-2013 http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=50141588n