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Savanna Biome

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Amy Villatoro

on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of Savanna Biome

Savanna
Andy Lam, Amy Villatoro, Kelly Rivas, Aide Granados
Physical Characteristics
A savanna is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome. There is not enough rain to support forests in the savanna.
The savannas we are most familiar with are the east african savannas that are covered with acacia trees. Savanna's can also be found in South America
Fauna
Harsh Conditions
Large And Small Creatures
Zebras & Kangaroo; Grasshoppers & Beetles
Diverse Population of Herbivores and Large Mammals
Plant Life
Major Types Of Soils
lithosols
lateritic soils
cracking clays
red/yellow earths
deep sands
alluvial soils
Climate, Latitude and Longitude
The savanna has a wet/dry climate. Dry in the winter, and gets rain in the summer months. It is in the tropical latitudes, therefor it is around 68 to 86 degrees and in the summer, and 68-78 in the winter. The savanna temperature does not change alot, when it does, it is very gradual and not drastic.
Primary Consumer Animals
Primary consumers include:
Elephants
Zebras
Wildebeest
Giraffe
Secondary Consumer Animals
Secondary consumer animals include:
Cheetahs
Meerkats
Egyptian Mongoose

Key Features
Savannas are usually 10-25% covered with trees. Mainly grass. Savannas also have under 20 inches (50 centimeters) of annual rainfall. Savannas exist on every continent except Antarctica. They are home to many animals, including mammals, birds, insects, and reptiles. Since humans have moved into new environments, they have destroyed savannas. In the last 200 years, many animals have lost their habitats and become extinct.
Limiting Factors
Almost all the rain fall occurs during the span of 6 months and the other 6 months are completely dry. This results in the soil becoming dry and can sometimes lead to fires. Another factor is that the overall availability of water, specifically during the dry season. Because there is so little water to be found, organisms have had to adapt and create complex root systems that retain as much water as possible but sometimes that isn’t enough. Competition arises among the animals due to the scarcity of water. Water is a necessity for all living organisms in order to thrive in their environment. Some animals may dehydrate due to the lack of water that they have in supply, while others are able to retain the necessary amount of water.
Species
The savanna has a large range of highly specialized plants and animals. They all depend on the each other to keep the environment in balance. There are over 40 different species of hoofed mammals that live on the savannas of Africa. Up to 16 different species of browsers (those who eat leaves of trees) and grazers can coexist in one area. They do this by having their own food preferences, browsing/grazing at different heights, time of day or year to use a given area, and different places to go during the dry season.
Some animals go so long without water during the dry season that they barely make it alive to the wet season.
In the savanna biome, all the animals and plants are extremely dependent upon each other for a food supply. If one species of animal were to be removed, the entire ecosystem would be altered.
Adaptations
Because of the extended periods of wet and dry climate in the savanna biome, the availability of food changes throughout the year.
Herbivores have developed traits which help them escape predators such as being fast, being large, or being tall.
The savanna biome does have a long dry season so plants there have adapted to this climate. Some store water in their roots and others extend their long roots deep into the ground to recover water from the water table.
Many animals must migrate to another area due to the long periods of drought in order to continue to thrive.


Effect of Human Activity
Some environmental concerns with savannas include poaching or hunting, overgrazing, and destruction of land for commercial crops. Many animals in the savanna, such as the rhinoceros and zebra, are endangered and threatened with extinction due to hunting, poaching, and habitat loss. The savanna is often damaged when it is used as pastureland for non-native domestic cattle. Cattle grazing also limits the amount of food available for wildlife.
Citations
1."Savanna Biomes." Savanna Biomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.

2."Savanna Biome Facts." Savanna Biome Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.

3."KDE Santa Barbara." KDE Santa Barbara. NCEAS, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2013.

4."The Main Features of a Savanna Ecosystem." 123HelpMe.com. 30 Oct. 2013

5."Amsel, Sheri. “Food Webs.” African Grassland (Savanna) Food Web. 30 Oct. 2013

Wildgrass
which is very important because it provides food for the animal
Trees
Pine trees, Palm trees, and Acacia trees
Full transcript