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Ammonia Plant

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Yuvraj Aneja

on 23 November 2012

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Transcript of Ammonia Plant

A Comprehensive report for
CHE C491 (Special Project) Synthesis of
Ammonia from Natural Gas Introduction Supply And Demand The Proposed Plant Capacity is
1100 tonnes per day Process Selection Steam Reforming of natural gas or naphtha is the most advantageous from the point of view of total energy consumption Material Balance Heat Balance Yuvraj Aneja 2009A1PS276G
Shalima Sreenath 2009A1PS485G Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. It is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. Ammonia Non Fertilizer
eg. Nitric acid by Ostwald process
Ammonium hydroxide for cleaning
Fermentation
Refrigeration
Remediation of gaseous emissions Structural Properties Physical Properties Chemical Properties:
The aqueous solution of ammonia acts a weak base.
In oxygen atmosphere, it burns rapidly.
At red hot temperature or by passing an electric spark, it decomposes :

2NH3(g) + electric spark N2(g) + 3H2(g)

When a mixture of ammonia and air is passed over Pt gauze at about 800°C, Nitric Oxide is formed.
Ammonia acts as Lewis Base because its Nitrogen atom contains a non-bonding electron pair.
It gives colored complex ions with transition metal ions forming a coordinate bond.
It forms salts with acid :
NH3 + HCl NH4Cl Reactions
In 2010, Ammonia production reached 157.5 million tons, an increase of 3.1% compared to 2009. The trend from 2001 to 2010 showed a growth rate of 2.5% per year.

Projections indicate an increase in the production of Ammonia to about 186 million tons by the year 2015.

China is the largest ammonia producer followed by Russia and India. India is the second largest importer of Ammonia - 2million tonnes Global Production of Ammonia Largest Importers of Ammonia
The three most commonly used sources of hydrogen are:
Natural gas
Coal
Naphtha Difference in feedstock used A Comparison of the Various Feedstocks T= 1081K CH4 + H2O   3H2 + CO ∆H1081= 224.5885833 kJ/mol

CO + H2O  CO2 + H2 ∆H1081 = -36.53467894 kJ/mol T = 1249K CH4 + O2 CO2 + 2H2O ∆H1249 = -793.3299114 kJ/mol
2CH4 + 3O2 2CO + 4H2O ∆H1249 = -1024.068463 kJ/mol T = 623K CO + H2O CO2 + H2 ∆H623= -36.6942931 kJ/mol T = 502K CO + H2O CO2 + H2 ∆H502= -40.35164172 kJ/mol T=323K CO + 3H2 CH4 + H2O ∆H323= -206.8354976 kJ/mol

CO2 + 4H2 CH4 +2 H2O ∆H323= -165.6949762 kJ/mol T=743K N2 + 3H2 2NH3 ∆H743= -107.0392388 kJ/mol To increase the stream temperature from 298K to 823K Heater 1 To decrease the stream temperature from 1249K to 623K To decrease the stream temperature from 693K to 502K Increase in enthalpy = 1.45066E+11 J/hr
Heat to be provided = 40296.049 kW Decrease in enthalpy = 3.198E+11 J/hr
Heat removed at a rate of = 88833.191 kW Cooler 1 Decrease in enthalpy = 9.7E+10 J/hr
Heat removed at a rate of = 26886.091 kW Cooler 2 Specific Enthalpies at required temperatures (J/kmol) Reference : Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook 8th edition CH4 : 5.34 + 0.0115 T
CO2 : 10.34 + 0.00274 T – 195500 / T2
CO : 6.6 + 0.0012 T
Ar : 4.97
H2 : 6.62 + 0.00081 T
N2 : 6.5 + 0.001 T
NH3 : 6.7 + 0.0063 T
H2O : 8.22 + 0.0015 T + 0.00000134 T2
O2 : 8.27+ 0.000258T - 187700 / T2 Specific Heat Capacities of Compounds (cal/mol*K); T=K To decrease the stream temperature from 743K to 311K Decrease in enthalpy = 48933428696 J/hr
Heat removed at a rate of = 13592.619 kW Cooler 3 H required for reaction = 1.91168E+11 J/hr

Hin – Hreq + Hsupplied = Hout
Hsupplied = 4.6867E+11 J/hr

Considering,
fuel value for methane = 49855.301 kJ/kg

Methane to be supplied as fuel = 9400.612181 kg/hr Primary Reformer H liberated by reaction = 6.95234E+11 J/hr

Hin + Hliberated + Hsupplied = Hout
Hsupplied = -8.54711E+11 J/hr

Heat should be removed at the rate of -8.54711E+11 J/hr Secondary Reformer H liberated by reaction = 4.0621E+10 J/hr

Hin + Hliberated + Hsupplied = Hout
Hsupplied = -4.6708E+10 J/hr

Heat should be removed at the rate of 4.6708E+10 J/hr High Temperature Shift Converter H liberated by reaction = 14619803.31 J/hr

Hin + Hliberated + Hsupplied = Hout
Hsupplied = 1.46361E+12 J/hr

Heat should be supplied at the rate of 1.46361E+12 J/hr Low Temperature Shift Converter H liberated by reaction = 6552128794 J/hr

Hin + Hliberated + Hsupplied = Hout
Hsupplied = -16712469198 J/hr

Heat should be removed at the rate of 16712469198 J/hr Methanator H liberated by reaction = 1.44609E+11 J/hr

Hin + Hliberated + Hsupplied = Hout
Hsupplied = -1.82442E+11 J/hr

Heat should be removed at the rate of -1.82442E+11 J/hr Ammonia Synthesis Thank You References 1. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Vol 2
2. Perry's Chemical Engineers Handbook 8th Edition
3. Fertilizer Manual; United Nations Industrial Development Organization
4. Dryden’s Outlines of Chemical Technology for the 21st Century; Edited by M. Gopala Rao and Marshall Sittig A Presentation by A Project Under the guidance of Parul Sahu Lecturer
Department of Chemical Engineering
BITS Pilani K.K. Birla Goa Campus
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