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Microbiology

Nov. 30, 2012
by

Elisha Mickle

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Microbiology

Part One
Microbiology
Microscopes
History
Cell Theory
The Cell is the basic unit of ALL living things.
Parts of a Cell
1590
1660
1674
1886
1933
1998-99
Dutch - Zacharias and Hans Janssen

1st Compound Microscope
Hooke's Compound Microscope

First to use Oil Lamp for Lighting
Leeuwenhoek's Simple Microscope

1 tiny lense = magnify a specimen
up to 266x
Modern Compound Light Microscope

German - Ernst Abbe & Carl Zeiss

More lenses to improve image

Magnify speciment 1000x
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

Magnify a specimen up to 500,000x
You were born
Today
- An instrument that makes small objects look larger
They make it possible for people to discover and learn about cells.
The human eye can't see all the small things which is why microscopes were invented
Light(Compound) Microscopes
Electron Microscopes
Magnification:
light passes through a convex lens; bending the ray; causing a larger image
Resolution:
sharpness of an image (is it clear)
- use a beam of electrons instead of light to produce a magnified image
- extremely smaller objects
- resolution is better
- Has 2 lenses; 1 lense = 10x
+ Another lense = 40x ... together 10x40 or 400
1981
Scanning Tunneling Microscope

- Magnify specimen 1,000,000x
Hello -- November 30, 2012

Get Going: Using the vocab sheet, LABEL the picture below.
Progress Reports!!
Man Your Battle Stations
Station #1
Station # 2
Station # 3
Station # 4
-Make your own microscope
- Teeny Tiny Things
- Activity Table
- Microscope Paper
- Magnifying!
- page
Pair up for groups - will rotate by.....
Handle Microscopes with Care
After Each Activity I will check you off for your grade.
Vocab sheets on the counter behind you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Living things are different from
nonliving things…


You are surrounded by life, but how would
you define a living thing?
Does it use en
ergy?
Does it move?
Does it consume food and water?


Organ
ism- any
individual form of life that
uses energy to carry out its activities.
Characteristics of Living Things

All living things:
are made up of cells (organization).
respond to the environment.
have the ability to reproduce.
move.
grow and develop.
perform metabolic processes.

Metabolism
- the sum of the physical and
chemical processes in an organism
Organization…
An organism’s body must be organized in that
enables it to meet its needs.
Some organisms are simple:
Bacteria
Archaea
Most Protists
Some organisms are more complex:
When different parts of the organism performs
different functions.
Examples: Humans, dogs, fish, mushrooms, oak trees
Needs for life…

Organisms need energy, materials, and living
space.
All energy comes from the sun.
Some organisms use
this energy directly
(pho
tosynthesis)

Others harness this
energy by eating food

Materials needed:
Carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, water
All living things are made up of
cells….
The cell is the smallest unit of a living thing.
If an organism is unicellular, all functions of life happen within that one cell.
If an organism is multicellular, different cells have different jobs and they all work together.
The microscope led to the discovery of cells.


1660’s
– Robert Hooke discovered the cell
He looked at cork under the microscope (30x)
He noticed little compartments, which he named after the little rooms that monks lived in…”Cells”

1670
’s – A
nton von Leeuwenhoek described
microorganisms in pond water
He looked at pond water under the microscope (300x)
He noticed that the water was full of moving living things
Cell Theory…

With the invention of the microscope and the
contributions of many scientists, a very
important question was answered in the
1850’s.
The question was:

Where do cells come from?
There are
three
concepts to the cell
theory…
Every living thing is made up of one or more cells.
Cells carry out the functions needed to support life
Cells come only from other living cells
Concept # 1
A panda bear is made up of many cells
Concept # 2
Different cells in a panda bear have different functions
Example: Fat cells provide insulation and red blood cells carry oxygen to the body
Concept # 3
All panda bear cells come from one single living cell. They divide and grow to replace old dead cells.
Good Morning! December 3, 2012

Get Going: Write the questions in your notes that we wrote on Friday. If you aren't sure how to do this please ask me or your neighbor.

Updated grades are posted. YOU are responsible for your keeping up with assignments!
Review
Principles of Cell Theory

1. All living things come from cells
2. Cells carry out the functions needed to support life.
3. Cells come only from other cells
Review -

Important Scientists to know:
1. Hooke- coined the term "cell"
2. Leeuwenhoek - tiny things in pond water
3. Francesco Redi - proved that living things cannot come from nonliving things
4. Louis Pasteur - cells come from other living cells
Two Types of Cells
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
• First cells to evolve
• No nucleus
• Hereditary info is contained within cytoplasm
• Ex: Archaea, Bacteria
Evolved from prokaryotes
Have a nucleus
Hereditary information contained in the nucleus
Ex) Animals, Protists, Fungi, Plants
Good Morning/Afternoon!! Dec. 4, 2012

21 Days til Christmas!

Get Going: Open up your notes and fill in the questions cornell style. If you have questions please ask me!
Review your NOTES
Circle or Underline Key Words

Place stars next to the possible test questions
Due By the End of Class
Please pick up a worksheet and complete using your notes and/or book.
CELL ORGANELLES
Tiny membrane-bound structures that perform special functions inside the cell
Cell Wall
Only found in Plant, Fungal, and Bacterial Cells
Made of Cellulose
Is rigid, strong, and tough
Provides support and protection for the cell
It's like the Wall that surrounds a medieval city!
Cell Membrane
Surrounds all Cells
- in plant cells- it lies beneath cell wall
- in animal cells- its the boundary (made of cholesterol
Provides Cell with:
- protection
-control of movements of material in/out of cell
- support
- maintains condition of cell
It's like the border of a city!
Color the cell membrane with purple
Nucleus
Identified by Albert Brown 1833
Found in BOTH plant and animal cells
Large, oval shape
Centrally located
Controls cell activites
Contains genetic information
Color the nucleus PINK
It's like the front office - CONTROL CENTER
Cytoplasm
Found in BOTH animal and plant cells
Clear, thick, jelly-like material
Located beneath the cell membrane
Supports and protects organelles
It's like the sidewalks in a city!
Color in YELLOW
Golgi Apparatus
Discoved by Camillo Golgi (1898)
Found in BOTH plant and animal cells
Looks like a flattened stack of membranes (or pancakes!)
Processes and packages molecules (lipids, proteins) that were made by cell
Color orange
It's like the Post Office!
Ribosomes
Found in BOTH plant and animal cells
Can be attached to the Endoplasmic Membrane or floating free in the cytoplasm
Produces proteins
The smallest organelle
It's like the brick yard that supplies a city of what its made of!
Color in Dark Blue
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Found in BOTH plant and animal cells
Network of tubes
Transport materials throughout cell
2 types
Smooth (no ribosomes)
Rough (covered with ribosomes
It's like a city highway system!
Color Light Blue
Good Morning/Afternoon Dec. 5, 2012

Get Going: Add questions to your notes from yesterday and circle/highlight key words in a different
color
Turn in your homework assignment!
Onion Cell Lab
If you have questions -ask!

Each of you will get a chance to complete this lab.
Groups of 2-3 please.

Answer the questions as you go!
What are some SAFETY precautions?
Due by the END OF CLASS
The Shippers
Vacuoles
Found in BOTH plant and animal cells
Fluid filled sacs
Stores food, water, and waste
It's like a city's warehouse, garbage dumps and water towers.
Lysosomes
ONLY in animal cells
small and circle-shaped
breaks down large molecules
digests old cell parts
It's the "recycling center".
Color in green
Chloroplasts
ONLY in plant cells
green color in plants - chlorophyll
uses energy from the sun to make food for the plant
It's the "solar panels" on the city buildings
On a piece of paper - write down how plant & animal cells are alike and how they are different. *** Turn your paper in to the paper tray ***
Cell Foldable
Must contain these points below

The 3 concepts of the Cell Theory
The definition of a cell
Cell Wall, Cell membrane, Nucleus, Cytoplasm
Lysosomes, Vacuoles, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum
Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus
Turn in before the end of class
Make it colorful and neat
Cheek Cell Lab
Remember Microscope Safety!!!

Choose new groups from yesterday

Must complete questions before the END of class

Remember to Ask questions if you Need to!
3-2-1
3 Things you know - 2 things you learned - 1 thing you still have a question on!
Turn in when done!
Good Morning/Afternoon Dec. 6, 2012

Get Going: Questions Cornell Style in notes from yesterday. Highlight or Color KEY WORDS.

I will be checking your cornell notes to make sure you have been doing them.
Good Morning/Afternoon Dec. 7, 2012

Get Going: Add questions for your cornell notes. Highlight and/or color KEY WORDS.

Remember you will get better grades by repitition!

Be respectful for the substitute today. Remember MY policy!
Good Morning/Afternoon Dec. 10, 2012

Get Going: Pull out your notes from Friday. I would like to check them.
-- Make sure you put your questions in the cornell format.


Turn in your homework due today " Cell Part Chart"
Before we can begin our day....
Microscope Saftey

1 page

Be sure to mention breaking glass and how to handle a microscope.
It's 12-12-12!!!!

Get Going: Please turn in your Cell Foldable and any other missing work.
We Have PLENTY of things to do!!
Reminder: Cell Organelle Quiz on Friday
1. Christmas CELL Wreaths

2. Stations "What Am I"

3. Memory Game with a Partner

4. A Journey Through The Cell
You must complete ALL stations today!
Work Diligently - Stay on Task
Fill out your agenda this week. I wil stop by to check it!
Good Afternoon Dec. 13, 2012

Get Going: Remember Iterim Reports are passed out on Monday. Make sure ALL missing assignments are turned in.

Take 5 : Study your the parts of the cell. We have a quiz on Friday.
A Journey Through the Cell
Mitosis
The process where the nucleus divides to form two nuclei
How does it differ between plants and animals?!
Before we begin with Reproduction of our cells....

Please draw this in your notes....
your cell
Spindle Fibers
Chromosomes
2 Chromatids bound together by a centromere
to form a CHROMOSOME

T.G.I.F!!! Dec. 14, 2012

Get Going: Quick study of your notes before the quiz!

Interim Reports go out on MONDAY ..
If you have any missing work - make sure you are turning it in.
Quick Review
How does little elephants (Ellie) grow up to be BIG elephants?
Why do animals shed their skin?!
3 Reasons why cells reproduce by asexual reproduction
1. Growth
2. Repair
3. Replacement

Skin cancer - the abnormal growth of skin cells - most often develops on skin exposed to the sun.

Cell that reproduce by asexual reproduction
reproduce constantly.
Animated Mitosis Cycle
I
nterphase
P
rophase
M
etaphase
A
naphase
T
elophase
C
ytokinesis

I
f
P
eople
M
ade
A
pples
T
alk-
C
razy!

http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm
1st: Interphase
[
Occurs before Mitosis
]
Chromosomes are copied (#'s doubled)
Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase
Nucleus
Cell Membrane
Cytoplasm
Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Spindle fibers
Sister chromatids
Centrioles
Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide)
Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite end of the cell.
Spindle fibers form between the poles.
Centrioles
Spindle fibers
Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Spindle fibers
Centrioles
Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers.
Spindle fibers
Centrioles
Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.
Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Chromatin
Nuclei
Nuclei
Two new nuclei form.
Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods).
Mitosis ends.
Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm
Plant Cell
Animal Cell
Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes.
Animal Mitosis -- Review
Plant Mitosis -- Review
- Cell Division
4 MORE DAYS OF SCHOOL!!!! Dec. 17, 2012

Get Going: Copy the Agenda down for the week!
I will come around and check the first few minutes of class.

Interim Reports Go Home Today!

Sign and return by 12-19-12 (that's Wednesday!)
3 More Days of School!!! Dec. 18, 2012

Get Going: Look at the foldable you made yesterday and circle or highlight KEY words!
Make sure you have turned in p.462 # 1 (a,b,c) If you haven't.... get working on it!

Interim Reports are due for a grade Tomorrow!!!
MAN YOUR BATTLE STATIONS!!!
Station #1:
What's the difference?!

Station # 2:
Mitosis Flip Book

Station # 3:
Plant Mitosis Drawing
Any Questions...Ask Me!
Stay On Task!
Submit a 3-2-1 upon completion!
2 Days to Go!!! Dec. 19, 2012

Get Going: On a sheet of paper; write down 3 possible test questions from your mitosis foldable. --- Place in the paper tray when finished.

TURN IN YOUR INTERIM REPORTS!! THEY ARE DUE!!
MEIOSIS
Process of nuclear division that reduces the number of chromosomes (REDUCTION DIVISION)
Diploid (2N) Haploid (N)
Initially a cell divides......
Until it is restored in sexual reproduction
Create your own Venn Diagram
on the differences between
Mitosis and Meiosis
Draw this in your
notebook
Meiosis differs from Mitosis......
2 kinds of divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II)
Takes 2 different cells to initiate the process
Takes longer to complete all stages
Shuffles genetic material
Meiosis is like Mitosis.....
Phases are called the same: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
Division & Replication of cells
Create daughter cells
What are some differences that you get from Meiosis?!
What are some things that you get from Mitosis?!
Blood Types
Hair color
Hitchhiker Thumb
New Skin cells...
Think about the 3 main reasons why cells divide
BOOK CHECK THURSDAY!!!
Welcome Back!
2013
Get Going: People do New Year's Resolutions all the time. On a piece of paper write down ONE word - your goal - for the end of your 8th grade year.
Put your name on it & Turn it in.
What do you want to be known for.....
Let's Get Organized!!!
Microbiology Exam is Jan. 30th
# 1 : Make sure you have these items
# 2: Place in order by date in your folder
Microscope Notes
Microscope picture with definitions
Cell Theory Notes
2 Types of Cells Notes
Cell Organelle Notes
Colored cell picture with labels
Onion Cell Lab
Cheek Cell Lab
Cell Foldable
Cell Part Chart
Mitosis Notes/Foldable
Meiosis Notes
Venn Diagram: The difference between Mitosis and Meiosis
When you are done ---> See Me!
USA TEST PREP
1. Create a new window and log in to usatestprep.com
2. You will create your own account
School Id: southwestmiddlenc
Password: newton33
3. Once you have created your own account
- Add Science to one of your classes
- You can search by grade, teacher name, and class name ie: Ms. Mickle 8th grade Science Core 2
Proceed to the next slide when finished.....
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
With access to the internet...
your job is to understand these 2 topics.
A packet is provided for you with specific questions that need answering. ...
Turn it in upon completion for a grade.
Leave this prezi up & create a new window to search... You will need this thoroughout the packet.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
HELPFUL links for the Topic.....
http://www.biology4kids.com/files/plants_photosynthesis.html
www.scholastic.com/magicschoolbus/games/sciencenews/index.htm
www.neok12.com/photosynthesis.htm
OR You can find your own sources
Watch this video....
Draw and label the picture seen two-thirds of the way through. It has a sun, arrows, and a plant.
http://scienceforkids.kidipede.com/biology/cells/photosynthesis.htm
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
HELPFUL LINKS ON THE TOPIC...
OR YOU CAN USE YOUR OWN
http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/cellresp/respintro.html
http://kidsresearchexpress-5.blogspot.com/2008/08/cellular-respiration.html
http://encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/ce/Cellular_respiration
Watch this next video
And Answer the questions in your packet
Draw this picture in your notes....
(Do your best -- I'm not great at drawing cows either....)
Check your answer to #4 and revise it if you need to.
Good Morning/Afternoon Jan. 4, 2012

Get Going: Fill out your agenda and be sure to put Microbiology Exam on Jan. 30th.

I will come around and check your agenda.
Click
Here!!!
Full transcript