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Copy of Chapter 9 Child Development Prezi
Transcript of Copy of Chapter 9 Child Development Prezi
This leads Piaget to suggest that Language and Thinking are interconnected. What we will cover:
How does Piaget interpret cognitive development in the preschool years?
How do information-processing approaches and Vygotsky's theory explain cognitive development?
How do children's linguistic abilities develop in the preschool years, and what is the importance of early linguistic development?
What kinds of preschool educational programs are avaliable in the United States, and what effects do they have?
What effect does television have on preschoolers? Piaget's Stage of Preoperational Thinking:
The Preoperational Stage is a single stage of development that lasts from age 2 to 7 during which the children's use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases.
This means that:
The child can represent events internally.
They are still not yet capable of operations which are organized, formal, logical mental processes.
The child uses symbolic function: the ability to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present.
Symbolic Funtion: use a mental symbol for a car, like a toy car, to keep from having to get behind the wheel of an actual car to understand its basic purpose. The debate: whether thought determines language or language determines thought?
Piaget's answer: language grows from cognitive development. Centration:
the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects.
Preschoolers focus on one aspect and the it is always the one they can see. Conservation:
The reason for error in judgement is that children have not mastered conservation.
Conservation is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. Transformation:
is the process in which one state is changed into another.
Egocentric Thought: is thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others.
Intuitive Thought refers to preschooler's use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquistion of knowledge about the world. Evaluating Piaget:
His theory was based on extensive observations of relatively few children.
Piaget underestimated children's capabilities.
His questioning of children were too difficult for children to answer.
He often focused on deficiences in thinking.
The average preschooler is able not only to count, but to do so in a fairly systematic, consistent manner.
Information Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development: Autobiographical Memory: memory of particular events from one's own life, achieves little accuracy until after 3 years of age. What is remembered may not be accurate because it is often organized into scripts: broad representation in memory of events and the order in which they occur.
Preschoolers memories are also susceptible to the suggestions of others.
-Forensic Development Psychology Lev Vygotsky: viewed cognitive development as a result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation, working with mentors to solve problems.
Children are apprentices who gradually grow intellecutally and begin to function on their own because of the assistance that adult and peer partners provide. This partnership is determined by cultural and societal factors. Vygotsky proposed that children's cognitive abilities increase through exposure to information that is new enough to be intriguing, but not too difficult for the child to contend with.
-This is called the Zone of Proximal Development or ZPD: the level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with the assisstance of someone more competent. The assistance or structuring provided by others is called scaffolding. In education this can be seen as helping children think about and frame a task in an appropriate manner. Vygotsky can be criticized for a lack of precision in his conceptualization of cognitive growth because the ZPD is not precise. He also did not focus on how individual bits of information are processed.
Overall he provided a revolutionary way of looking at Child Development. During the late-twos and mid-threes sentence length increases at a steady pace and they begin to combine words and phrases to form sentences which is called syntax. The child now has a vocabulary of around 14,000 words with learning nearly one new word every 2 hours, 24 hours a day.
They do this through a process called Fast Mapping: in which new words are associated with their meaning only after a brief encounter. The child can use plurals and possessive nouns, employ past tense, use article such as the and a, and ask and answer complex questions.
The learn to do this by learning grammar: the system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed.
Young Preschoolers are correct in their grammatical constructions more than 90% of the time. Private Speech: speech by children that is spoken and directed to themselves, performs an important function.
-It facilitates children's thinking and helps them control their behavior.
-It also is a way for children to practice practical skills required in conversation which are known as Pragmatics.
-Pragmatics: the aspect of language relating to communicating effectively and appropriately with others.
Social Speech is speech directed toward another person and meant to be understood by that person. How Living in Poverty affects Language Development:
The Language that Preschoolers hear at home has profound implications for future cognitive success.
-The greater the number and variety of words children hear, the better their perfomance at age 3 on a variety of measures of intellectual achievement.
This suggests the importance of early exposure to language, in terms of both quantity and variety. Approximately 75% of children in the United States are enrolled in some form of care outside the home.
There is increasing evidence that children can benefit substantially from involvement in some form of educational activity before they enroll in formal schooling which usually takes place at 5 or 6 years. The Varieties of Early Education: Child Care Centers: typically provide care for children all day, while their parents are at work
Family Child-Care Centers: are small operations that are run in private homes
Preschools are explicitly designed to provide intellectual and social experiences for children for around 3 to 5 hours a day.
School child care is provided by some local school systems in the U.S.
Early Childhood Education: The Effectiveness of Child Care: -Participation in Child care is particularly helpful for children from impoverished home environments or who are otherwise at risk.
-Not all early childhood care programs are equally effective.
-High-quality care provides intellectual and social benefits while low-quality care not only is unlikely to furnish benefits, but poor programs actually may harm children.
The Quality of Childcare: Care providers are well-trained
The center has and appropriate overall size and ratio of care providers to children
The center has a curriculum that is well planned out
The language environment is rich
The caregivers are sensitive
Materials and activities are age appropriate
Basic health and safety standards are followed Does Head Start Truly Provide a Head Start? The goal of Head Start is to serve the whole child which includes the children's physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social and emotional development all while providing parental involvement. Compared with children who did not participate in early intervention programs, participants in various programs showed gains in emotional or cognitive development, better educational outcomes, increased economic self-sufficiency, reduced levels of criminal activity and improved health-related behaviors. Graduates of Head Start Programs have better future school adjustments than thier peers, and they are less likely to be in special education classes or to be retained in grade. Something to Think about:
Children of a particular age cannot be expected to master educational material without taking into account their current level of cognitive development.
This means that children require developmentally appropriate educational practice, which is education based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child. The Montessori Approach: Is it Effective?
Montessori students performed significantly better than non-montessori students on reading, math, fairness, engaging in positive shared play, and understanding false beliefs. Learning From the Media The average preschooler watches more than 21 hours of TV a week and spends 3/4 of an hour reading on the average day.
Seventy percent of preschoolers between the ages of 4 and 6 have used a computer. The American Academy of Pediatrics limits children under the age of 2 to no television and after that age no more than 1-2 hours of quality programming each day. Sesame Street:
Has specific goals to teach children letters and numbers, increase vocabulary, and teach preliteracy skills.
Studies show that preschoolers in lower income households who watch the show are better prepared for school and they perform significantly better on several measures of verbal and mathmatics ability compared to nonviewers. A different approach to cognitive development is taken by information-processing theorists who focus Remember:
1. During the preoperational stage of development symbolic thought which is the ability to use mental symbols to represent something not physically present grows as mental reasoning develops.
2. A limitation of the preoperational stage of development: centration which is the process of concentrating on 1 limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring all others.
3. How preschoolers learn and explore their world is through a type of thinking called intuitive thinking where they ask questions like why and how.
4.Piaget stressed that in each stage of development qualitative changes occur, but developmental is more quantitative.
5. Scaffolding is the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth.
6. Fast mapping is when the child acquires a word and its meaning after a brief encounter.
7. Private speech is language not intended for others.
8. Studies show that there is a positive correlation between affluence and the more parents talked with their children.
9. High quality program means that the program must meet certain standards for the early childhood program.
10. Watching television can have a great influence on preschool aged children (positive and negative) because of the amount of time children of this age are exposed to it.