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Psychology unit 9: Abnormal Psychology

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Joe Berchtold

on 28 May 2013

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Transcript of Psychology unit 9: Abnormal Psychology

Cluster B The Medical Model -mental illnesses are almost purely biological in nature, and are treated like any other sickness The Biopsychosocial Model -mental illnesses are the result of a combination of BIO-logical, PSYCHO-logical, and SOCIAL factors The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV) Essential features
the main characteristics of a disorder

Associated features
occasional characteristics of a disorder Phobias -an irrational and overwhelming fear of a specific thing or situation Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Disorder where people suffer from...
Obsessions - anxiety provoking thoughts that are recurrent and intrusive.

To decrease this anxiety, they perform...
Compulsions - repetitive and ritualistic behaviors Panic Disorder -person experiences intense, unexpected bouts of terror (a.k.a. panic attacks) at unexpected times on a regular basis. May or may not be accompanied by agoraphobia Post Traumatic Stress Disorder -First, there is an extremely traumatic experience. (ex: war, rape, abuse, car crash, etc.)



-Then the person begins to reexperience the event in a variety of ways (ex: nightmares and flashbacks) -anxiety towards/avoidance of things that remind them of the trauma

-flattening of affect (a.k.a. restricted ability to feel emotions)

-problems falling or staying asleep

-irritability, outbursts, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, -exaggerated startle response (a.k.a. jumpy) Generalized Anxiety Disorder -person experiences excessive anxiety the great majority of the time.

-level of anxiety is significantly out of proportion to the events Dissociative Disorders -person is somehow disconnected from themselves Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue sudden unexpected travel combined with an inability to recall one’s own past, often resulting in identity confusion Depersonalization Disorder person feels separated or removed from their own life

often described as feeling like one is in a dream, that one is a robot, or that one is watching their life go by on screen Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) the presence of multiple personalities within a single body which “take control” of the person Major Depressive
Disorder Bipolar Disorder -euphoria
-increased sense of self-importance
-decreased need for sleep
-talkativeness
-“racing thoughts" (thoughts going a mile a minute)
-distractibility
-excessive “thrill seeking” behaviors Seasonal Affective Disorder List of people who suffer from Major Depression, or have in the past -Woody Allen
-Alec Baldwin
-Jon Bon Jovi
-Jim Carrey
-Rodney Dangerfield
-J.K. Rowling
-Owen Wilson
-Brooke Shields List of people with Bipolar disorder -Catherine Zeta Jones
-Carrie Fisher
-Jean-Claude Van Damme
-Vincent van Gogh
-DMX

-Charlie Sheen (possibly) -mood disorder where either mania or depression occur only during a particular season Schizophrenia schizo-(split), phrene-(mind) most common: winter depression 2nd most common:
Summer mania Paranoid Schizophrenia -the person predominantly suffers from hallucinations and delusions of grandeur and/or persecution. Catatonic Schizophrenia -the patient has periods of immobility and/or periods of excessive movement. –the person shows no current symptoms but has in the past Undifferentiated Schizophrenia -person does not exhibit any particular symptom strongly enough to be classified under other types Personality Disorders Examples: wide-open spaces, and uncontrollable social situations such as shopping malls, airports, and on bridges Depression Mania Causes? Diagnosis? Mental
illness Does the behavior interfere with daily life? Are other people distressed by the behavior? Who is normal?
Who is abnormal?
Who has a disorder? abnormal? disorder? abnormal? disorder? abnormal? disorder? abnormal? disorder? Is the person distressed by their behavior? Is the behavior irrational and/or inappropriate? How atypical or strange is the behavior? Social Anxiety Disorders -Disorders characterized by an overwhelming
feeling of
fear, worry, or dread (used to be Multiple Personality Disorder) -the person cannot recall something (not caused by physical injury)

-usually the forgotten memory is a traumatic one Mood Disorders same symptoms as Major Depression, but alternates with... Borderline Personality Disorder -unstable self image
-frequent mood swings
-anxiety and depression
-impulsive
-occasionally hostile
-Intense, unstable, and conflicted close relationships
-preoccupation with real or imagined abandonment
-can occasionally have dissociative episodes under severe stress - Ego-centric
- Lack of remorse
- Lack of concern for feelings, needs, or suffering of others
- manipulative and deceitful
- Persistent or frequent feelings of anger
- Disregard for agreements and promises, whether financial, social or otherwise
- very impulsive
- engages in risky behaviors Narcissistic Personality Disorder -exaggerated self-appraisal may be inflated or deflated
-hypersensitive to reactions of others, but only if perceived as relevant to self
-Relationships largely superficial and exist to serve self-esteem regulation
-Feelings of entitlement
-believes they are better than others
-condescending toward others
-attention seeking Other examples
- Hannibal Lecter
- Alex from
"A Clockwork Orange" Less violent example
- uncaring business leaders hallucinations
delusions
disorganized speech/behavior
catatonic behavior
flat or inappropriate affect Symptoms of Schizophrenia include... Disorganized Schizophrenia –the disorganized speech and behavior is most evident.
-speech also informally referred to as "word salad" Residual Schizophrenia Fear of situations where it is perceived to be difficult or embarrassing to escape. social support
health education
pollution control
sanitation
medical care Stress
Coping skills
Personality
Health related habits
Reactions to illness Infectious agents
Environmental toxins
Genetic predisposition
physiological reactivity
immune response Bio Psycho Cluster Odd, Eccentric A C Cluster Anxious, Fearful Dependent Personality Disorder -low self esteem
-believe themselves to be socially inept, personally unappealing, or inferior
-often assume that others view them negatively
-Reluctance to get involved with people
-avoidance of social contacts and activity
-Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life’s experiences
-highly anxious, particularly about social situations Avoidant Personality Disorder Obsessive Compulsive
Personality Disorder -Relationships seen as secondary to work and productivity
-Rigid insistence on everything being flawless, perfect, without errors or faults
-sacrificing of timeliness to ensure correctness in every detail
-Persistence at tasks long after the behavior has ceased to be functional or effective Schizotypal Personality Disorder -Odd behavior/appearance
-saying unusual or inappropriate things
-Odd or unusual thoughts ; "Magical Thinking"
-Metaphorical/over-elaborate thought or speech
-Odd sensory sensations
-Limited emotional expression
-Preference for being alone, often because of social anxiety
-Suspicious Paranoid Personality Disorder Emotional, Erratic Schizoid Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Similar to a lighter version of schizophrenia, without a biological basis "Serial Killer" disorder Similar to a light form of Bipolar disorder, but without biological basis The name speaks for itself Similar to light form of OCD, but without biological basis SUPER DUPER SHY
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