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Human Reproductive System

Alligned with Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Chapter 19
by

Tammy Pickard

on 22 March 2011

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Transcript of Human Reproductive System

The Human Reproductive System Main function: Produce offspring
so the species does
not become extinct. The Male Reproductive System Purpose: to produce sperm! have only a half set of chromosomes Haploid Haploid
gamete necessary body parts penis testis scrotum epididymis prostate
gland seminal
vesicle urethra vas deferens loose sac that contains the testes oval structures that
~ produce male sex
hormones (testosterone)
~ produce sperm spermatogenesis: production of sperm One testicle cell undergoes
two divisions that produces four
haploid sperm. (meiosis) After puberty, it occurs
24 hours a day. Immature sperm are stored in this 18 foot long coiled tube until they are used. If they are not used the sperm will be reabsorbed by the body. Mature sperm cells swim through
this 22 inch tube until they reach
the ejaculatory duct at the prostate
gland. The prostate gland, the seminal vesical, and Cowper's gland secrete fluids that are added to the sperm to form semen. carries the semen from the
prostate gland, through the
penis and out of the body (ejaculation) erection: specialized tissue in
the penis fill with blood causing
the penis to swell and elongate male hormone testosterone ~causes all changes that occur in puberty ~increases red blood
cell production ~stimulates sexual activity
by affecting certain portions
of the brain sperm After ejaculation of the semen,
the penis gradually return to its
relaxed state. http://health.howstuffworks.com/sexual-health/sexuality/human-reproduction3.htm
An average human ejaculate contains
about 180 million sperm (Just remember though- it only takes ONE to make a baby) The Female Reproductive System purpose: to produce eggs necessary body parts ovary solid, almond-shaped organs
that produce the eggs oogenesis: egg formation (meiosis)

~ begins before birth (primary oocytes) ~ at puberty one primary oocyte
will develop into a large secondary
oocyte and one small polar body ~ after fertilization the secondary
oocyte will produce a second polar body and the zygote. ~ the polar bodies will degenerate
(see page 503 & 504) Ovulation: the secondary oocyte
is released from the ovary and
enters the fallopian tube fallopian tube about 4.5 inches long open end receives
the released egg lined with ciliated cells
that move the egg toward
the uterus fertilization occurs
the fallopian tube secondary oocyte = egg The proximal end opens into the uterus uterus (womb) Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ receives the embryo and
sustains its development cervix: lower portion of the uterus;
separates main uterus from the vagina vagina endometrium: inner lining
of the uterus muscular tube connecting
the uterus to the outside of
the body organ used during intercourse "birth canal" other female organs labia majora and labia minora:
folds of skin that surround the
opening of the vagina and urethra clitoris: small projection at the
superior end of the labia that
is composed of erectile tissue
and sensory nerve fibers mucus secreting glands
~ in the uterus
~ around the vaginal opening Female Reproductive Cycle "menstrual cycle"
avg. length=28 days 1: first day of the period (blood flow)
5: The endometrium is thin
but begins to thicken. 5-28: The endometrium collects
bloody tissue as it prepares
for a fertilized egg. 1: If the egg is not fertilized
the period starts again. If the egg
is fertilized it will have embedded
in the endometrium and the
menstrual cycle stops during pregnancy Breasts: accessory organs
specialized to secrete milk
following pregancy
(mammary glands) menopause: at age 45-55
ovulation ceases and periods stop historectomy: removal of the uterus ovarian cyst: inflamed follicle on the ovary endometriosis: endometrium tissue located
outside the uterus. This tissue bleed with
each period. Other Female Conditions http://www.cdc.gov/STD/ CONTRACEPTION birth control coitius interruptus early withdrawal
of the penis 1-5% effective!!! rhythm method timing intercourse so as
not to fertilize the egg 10-50% effective condoms covers the penis and
prevents sperm from entering the vagina 90-100% effective,
depending on correct
usage diaphragm cup-like device that
covers the opening
of the cervix needs to be fitted
by a doctor should be used with
a chemical barrier Chemical barriers creams, foams, and jellies
that contain chemicals that
should kill sperm. should be used with a
condom or diaphragm
because they have a
high failure rate when
used alone can be inserted 6 hours
before intercourse and
must be left in for 6 hours
after intercourse. birth control pills synthetic hormones prevents ovulation nearly 100% effective may increase blood clots
and blood pressure should never smoke and take "the pill" Certain antibiotics can interfere
with its effectiveness. birth control shot synthetic hormone shot that prevents
ovulation and may prevents periods
for three months nearly 100% effective side effects ? IUD a small, solid object that a doctor
places within the uterus It prevents the fertilized egg from
implanted in the uteran wall. may cause cramping and heavier
periods may be expelled from the uterus needs to be regularly checked by a doctor vasectomy surgically cutting the vas deferens
and clamping back the loose ends tubal ligation surgically cutting the fallopian tubes
and tying back the loose ends most reliable form of contraception the most reliable form of contraception 100% effective because sperm
never enters the female
reproductive organs.
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