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PHYSICAL EDUCATION DURING
Transcript of PHYSICAL EDUCATION DURING
THE DARK AGES
Referred to as the “Dark Ages“ in history was the period following the fall of the Roman empire in A.D. 476. The strong Teutonic barbarians overruled the lands that experienced glory and grandeur. The invasions brought about the lowest ebb in literature and in learning. It is, however, interesting to note the lesson derived from this period in history: that the Teutonic barbarians who lived a life characterized by much physical activity were strong and healthy and conquered the Romans who were physically and morally deteriorated due to their way of life.
a historical periodization used originally for the Middle Ages, which emphasizes the cultural and economic deterioration that supposedly occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
The label employs traditional light-versus-darkness imagery to contrast the "darkness" of the period with earlier and later periods of "light".
The period is characterized by a relative scarcity of historical and other written records at least for some areas of Europe, rendering it obscure to historians. The term "Dark Age" derives from the Latin saeculum obscurum, originally applied by Caesar Baronius in 1602 to a tumultuous period in the 10th and 11th centuries.
- a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from worldly pleasures, often pursuing spiritual goals. Many religious traditions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism,Jainism, and some Christian groups (for example, the Desert Fathers) include practices that involve restraint with respect to actions of body, speech, and mind. The founders and earliest practitioners of these religions lived extremely austere lifestyles, refraining from sensual pleasures and the accumulation of material wealth.
They practiced asceticism not as a rejection of the enjoyment of life
, or because the practices themselves are virtuous, but as an aid in the pursuit of physical and metaphysical health. They eschewed worldly pleasures and led an abstemious lifestyle.
- method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics (
"scholastics," or "schoolmen"
) of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100–1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of, and a departure from, Christian monastic schools at the earliest European universities. The first institutions in the West to be considered universities were established in Italy, France, Spain, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology, such as Schola Medica Salernitana, the University of Bologna, and the University of Paris.
"the anointed one", is a monotheistic religion based on the life and oral teachings of Jesus as presented in the New Testament. Christianity is the
world's largest religion
, with approximately 2.2 billion adherents, known as Christians. Most Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human, and the savior of humanity whose coming was prophesied in the Old Testament. Consequently, Christians refer to Jesus as Christ or the Messiah.
- Theodosius I (Latin: Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the
last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire
. His social transformation was a pivotal, if under-recognized, milestone in European history; it parted with Roman religious tolerance and political strength and may be seen in retrospect as the inauguration of a feudal society.
a broad group of indigenous and historical polytheistic religious traditions
—primarily those of cultures known to the classical world. In a wider sense, paganism has also been understood to include any non-Abrahamic, folk, or ethnic religion. Modern ethnologists often avoid referring to non-classical and non-European, traditional and historical faiths as "pagan" in favour of less ambiguous labels such as polytheistic, shamanistic, pantheistic, and animistic. Contemporary or modern paganism, also known as neopaganism, is a group of new religious movements influenced by, or claiming to be derived from, the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe.
- The Teutons were a
from Denmark. Together with another
, they attacked the Roman Empire in Austria, Gaul, Spain and northern Italy in the late 2nd century BC.
During the dark period, two major movements grew out which swept all over Europe: Asceticism and Scholasticism. These movements affected tremendously physical education. Christianity grew and thrived in this period with the ascetic belief that one can attain high spiritual level through solitude, mortification of the flesh, and devotional contemplation. These people did not believe in wordly pleasures but this life should be a means of preparing for the next world. The body should be tortured and not improved because the body is evil. A Christian emperor, Theodosiusm abolished the Olympic games in A.D. 394 because these were believed as being pagan. The customs and practices at the time resulted in poor health and shattered nervous system of many people.
Scholasticism had the belief that the most essential items in one’s education are facts:
that the key to a successful life is the development of the mental or intellectual powers. This belief which was held by the scholars at the time passed down from generation to generation so that scholasticism as a movement presented a challenge to physical education. An effect of this de-emphasis on physical activity was that the institutions associated with early Christianity would not allow physical education to be one of the important subjects in their curriculum.
Laosantos, Princess Merciline
Dela Cruz, Camille
- Manlio Fahrni
- Foundations Of Physical Education (Carmen Tabije Andin)
THANK YOU SO MUCH