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Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise

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John Gibson

on 23 October 2015

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Transcript of Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise

Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
Principal Cardiovascular responses to exercise
Endurance exercise
Strength exercise
Oxygen Consumption
Heart Rate
Stroke Volume
Arteriovenous Oxygen Difference
Blood Pressure

Principle Responses
Increased cardiac output
Increased skin blood flow
Decreased blood flow to the kidneys
Decreased visceral blood flow
Vasoconstriction in the spleen
Maintenance or slight increase in brain blood flow
Increased blood flow to the coronary arteries of the heart
Increased muscle blood flow
Endurance Exercise
Causes the largest response from the cardiovascular system
Large increases in:
cardiac output
heart rate
systolic blood pressure
Little change in diastolic blood pressure
Strength Exercise
Large increases in:
mean blood pressure
Moderate increases in:
heart rate
cardiac output
Oxygen Consumption
Oxygen consumption is proportional to the intensity of exercise
Determined by:
Cardiac output accounts for approximately 75% of VO2
Factors that affect VO2
Oxygen Consumption is determined by:
Rate oxygen is transported to the tissues
oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
The amount of oxygen extracted from the blood
V02=HR*SV(a-v O2 diff)
Oxygen Consumption is affected by:
Capacity of mitochondria to use oxygen
rate of diffusion of oxygen into the cell
blood flow
oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
Heart Rate
Most important factor increasing cardiac output during exercise
Heart rate increases during exercise because of withdrawal of the vagal nerve and sympathetic input
Submaximal exercise heart rate levels off as the oxygen requirements of the activity have been satisfied
Cardiovascular drift
Heart rate increases in proportion to the muscle mass used and the percentae of maximum voluntary contraction
Heart rate will be higher in upper body exercise than lower body exercise at the same power output
Cardiovacular drift
Decreased blood volume to return back to the ventricle
Decreased SV
Stroke Volume
Increases during exercise in the upright posture, not supine
Stroke volume plays the largest role in Q during low to mod. intensity exercise
AV O2 Diff
Some oxygenated blood is always returning to the heart
Oxygen extraction approaches 100% when (a-v)O2 is measured across maximal exercising muscle.
Blood Pressure
BP = Q * TPR
Peripheral resistance decreases during exercise because of the increase in blood flow to working muscles
BP doesn't drop because of the large increase in Q
A fall in blood pressure is an indication of something more serious
Rate-Pressure Product (SBP * HR) is an indicator of myocardial load
DBP changes very little during exercise in normal people
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