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PE - Psychology - Personality

A2 Level PE
by

Matt Coles

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of PE - Psychology - Personality

PERSONALITY A2 Level PE PERSONALITY An individual's predisposition to behave in a certain way. Your personality affects the way you behave in certain situations. HOLLANDER'S MODEL Hollander suggested that our personality
is a layered structure, with an inner core of beliefs, values and attitudes. The psychological core, which is fairly permanent
and unlikely to change, affects the next layer.
This does not change because these are our traits. The middle layer shows our typical responses to a situation and generally gives a good indication of the inner core; different people, with different inner cores, may have different typical responses to the same situation. The outer layer, the role-related behaviours, show our actual responses to different circumstances. INTERACTIONIST
THEORY An explanation of behaviour that assumes that our personality depends on our traits and on the environment. TRAITS Innate, enduring personality characteristics that allow behaviour to be predicted. Interactionist theories suggest that our behaviour depends on the interaction between our inherited, enduring personality traits and the environment that we find ourselves in. Interactionist theories suggest that our behaviour depends on what traits we have inherited and how these are influenced by our environment. Kurt Lewin (1935) made this formula
B = f (P.E)
B - Behaviour
f - Function of our
P - Personality traits
E - Environment in which we find ourselves. Trait theories represent the 'nature' approach.
Traits are seen to be stable, enduring and consistent.
If this was exactly true, it would allow us to predict our behaviour in future situations. EYSENCK'S PERSONALITY
DIMENSIONS Eysenck suggested that individuals possess stable traits based on two dimensions. The first is the Extrovert-Introvert dimension. The second is the Stable-Neurotic dimension. EYSENCK'S CIRCULAR DIAGRAM OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS INTERACTIONIST
THEORY An explanation of behaviour that assumes that our personality depends on our traits and on the environment. EYSENCK'S EPI Eysenck's Personality Inventory is a questionnaire that determines whether the person taking it is an extrovert or an introvert and whether they are stable or neurotic. EVALUATION OF TRAIT THEORIES Too simplistic
Do not account for changing personality over time
Do not account for situational factors
Not an accurate predictor of sport performance
Limited value as a predictor of sporting success
Fail to allow individuals actively understanding their own personality VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF SELF-REPORT QUESTIONNAIRES Their validity may be questioned as there is no agreed definition of personality
Their reliability may be questioned as the results may very when the test is repeated
Responses may be affected by situational factors
Respondents may lie to make themselves look good
Possible response options (yes or no) may be too limited and not allow a proper answer VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF SELF-REPORT QUESTIONNAIRES Their validity may be questioned as there is no agreed definition of personality
Their reliability may be questioned as the results may very when the test is repeated
Responses may be affected by situational factors
Respondents may lie to make themselves look good
Possible response options (yes or no) may be too limited and not allow a proper answer VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INTERVIEWS AND OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES O - it is very time consuming
O - subjective so may get different results
O - same criteria must be used on every occasion I - can be expensive
I - can be time consuming
I - respondents may lie
I - subjective PROFILE OF MOOD STATES POMS is a way of measuring the moods of those who participate in sport.

The best athletes will have a low and consistent score amongst tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion whilst having a high score for vigour. The six mood states shown were developed by McNair, Lar and Droppleman in 1971.
In 1979, Morgan suggested that the mood states mght be useful in the identification of successful athletes. It was Morgan who identified that the score for vigour needed to be higher that the other five if the athlete was going to be successful in their career or not. Morgan called the shape of the results for the elite, successful athletes an ICEBERG PROFILE because of how it looks comparedwith the almost horizontal lines of the unsuccessful athletes. ICEBERG PROFILE The POMS profile that is associated with successful athletes. PERSONALITY & SPORTING PERFORMANCE Some psychologists prefer the sceptical approach, which questions the link between the two and some adopt the credulous approach which believes there is a link between success and personality type. However:
There is no clear link between success and personality
There is no clear link between personality & sport choice
Personality can be affected by situational and environmental factors ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
THEORY The theory that an individual's behaviour is determined by their interaction with the environment and their desire to succeed. Sports performers have to go through hard times before they are successful.
Their innate ability and high skill levels will beinsufficient to guarantee them a place on the victory podium Throughout their training, there will be times when their motivation drops because progress is not as fast as they initially hoped. This can be characterised by a plateau in performance. The motivation level of an individual is a key factor in his or her desire to strive for success and directly affects his or her behaviour.
The theory of achievement motivation attempts to link personality with competitiveness. NEED TO ACHIEVE (n.Ach) The first underlying motive we have is the need to achieve. This is the motivation to succeed or attain particular goals. NEED TO AVOID FAILURE (n.Af) The second underlying motive we have is the need to avoid failure. This is the motivation we have to make sure that we do not fail in what we do. CHARACTERISTICS A sense of pride and satisfaction from completing
Perseverance
Quick completion of the task
Feedback is welcomed
Optimistic
Confident
Take responsibility for their own actions
Attribute performance to internal factors
Enjoy performing in front of others
Prepared to take risks and face challenges
Failure is seen as a learning experience CHARACTERISTICS Attempt to avoid failure and humiliation
Worry about failure
Avoid situations with a 50/50 chance of success
Choose tasks which are very easy or very hard
Dislike personal feedback
Attribute performance to external factors
Give up easily
Performance tends to deteriorate when evaluated Our level of achievement motivation is a combination of personality and an evaluation of the situational factors. This assesses two aspects: The first is the probability of success (this relates to the difficulty of the task at hand).
The second is the incentive value of success (this relates to the relative feelings of pride or shame). This can be expressed as:
(Ms-Maf) x (Ps x [I -Ps])
Ms - Motive to succeed
Maf - Motive to avoid failure
Ps - Probability of success
I - Incentive value of success APPROACH & AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOUR Performers with a higher motive to achieve (n.Ach) will tend to have approach behaviour patterns. They will be prepared to take risks and rise to the challenge, gaining feelings of satisfaction from the task even if it is difficult.

Performers with a higher motive to avoid failure (n.Af) will have avoidance behaviour patterns. They will tend to opt for the easier choice or nt attempt the task at all.

A coach should aim to encourage appraoch behaviour. APPROACH BEHAVIOUR The performer is motivated to attempt a challenging situation depsite there being the risk of failing. AVOIDANCE BEHAVIOUR The performer is motivated to protect his or her self-esteem and may not place themselves in a situation where he/she may experience failure. When evaluating the AM theory, several critical point can be highlighted:
most useful when task is 50/50
success may be interpreted in different ways
measuring AM may be unreliable
AM is not a global concept
No clear relationship between AM and performance has been established. Recently, sports psychologists have proposed the AM theory which suggests that a performers' level of achievement will differ depending on the motivation they have.
The performer may set different types of achievement goals, such as: OUTCOME GOAL An outcome goal is a goal that is set to judge the performance of the individual against others and the result. If the goal is realistic and within the performer's capability , and he or she achieves the aim, motivation and feelings of pride and self-esteem are increased. However, it can be demotivating if the performer is unsuccessful, especially after repeated attempts. TASK-ORIENTED GOAL A task-oriented goal is one that is set to judge the performance of the individual against his or her own standards. These goals could include: applying the tactics agreed with the coach beforehand
using effective techniques
comparing how close the performer is to a personal best DEVELOPMENT OF
APPROACH BEHAVIOUR providing positive childhood experiences
reducing punishment and negative feelings
gradually increasing the task difficulty
catering for all levels of ability
raising levels of SELF-EFFICACY and avoiding LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
setting appropriate outcome or task-oriented goals
considering cultural differences
using ATTRIBUTIONS correctly
providing encouragment from significant others SELF-EFFICACY The level of confidence a performer has in themselves, depending on situational factors. ATTRIBUTIONS The perceived reason as to why success or failure occurs. LEARNED
HELPLESSNESS The state that occurs when a performer believes that failure is inevitable and that they have no way of changing that outcome.
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