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Chapter 2 - Networking

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Wendy Gardner

on 14 June 2018

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Transcript of Chapter 2 - Networking

Types of Networks
Local Area Network (
Network Architecture
Networks can be further characterised by their architecture
Network architecture refers to the layout or design of their network
virtual private network
Communications Devices
enable communication and exchange of data instructions and information between computers.
various communications devices exist to interconnect networks.
Communications Software
an application or program designed to support movement of information over a network
some are pre-programmed to accomplish communications tasks others requrie separate communications software
consist of programs that help establish connection to a computer or network
manage transmission of data, instructions and information
Chapter 3 - Networking
Computing Units 1 & 2
Internet Services

Network Communications Standards
today's networks connect terminals, devices and computers from many different manufacturers across many different networks using both wireless and wired communication channels
networks must use similar techniques for moving data between applications
to avoid problems with hardware and software incompatibility organisations such as the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
develop network standards.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Mobile Devices Connected to Networks

convergence of technologies resulting in greater capabilities of mobile devices while other devices (PDA's) have become redundant
Communications Channel

An important aspect of communications is the
, the communications path between two devices.
is the width of the communications channel.
When bandwidth is too low you notice considerable slowdown in system performance.
National Broadband Network (NBN)
Network Physical Designs
Physical design
takes into account hardware and software needed for solution
network diagram
Measures to Secure Networks
an unprotected network is vulnerable to attack
a number of measures can be used to minimise chances of a security breach
wireless security protocols
UPS devices
Legal and Ethical Responsibilities
Network professionals and users have legal and ethical responsibilities
social protocols - set of rules that apply for online environments
ownership of data and information (intellectual property)
application of digital security practices
use of personal security strategies
Network Security
information on networks has a higher degree of security risk than that kept on a companies premises.
Man security techniques are used by administrators to protect a network
user names
On a vast network with no central administrator, such as the internet, the risk is even greater, every computer along the path of your data can see what you send and receive.
uses short range radio waves to trans data among Bluetooth-enabled devices
devices contain a chip that allows communication between Bluetooth devices
desktop computers
hand held computers
mobile phones
fax machines
must be in range of one another to communicate approx 10m
popular for hands free in cars
uses radio signals
Wi-fi communications
requires a transmitter and a receiver
receive has an antenna located within range of the signal
some networks use a transceiver which both sends and receives signals
wi-fi is slower and more susceptible to noise than physical transmission but provides flexibility and portability
typically uses 2.4GHz or 5GHz range
can carry more data
higher frequency - shorter range
not as good at penetrating walls
does not compete with common household items
covers larger range
cordless phones can interfere with the signal
a number of components now provide the best of both worlds
Sending Device
for successful communications network needs
a sending device
notebook, computer etc
a communications device
wireless adapter inside laptop forwards packets of data
communications channel/transmission media
cable or radio waves through which digital signals travel
communications device
such as a router - receives signals and forwards packets to receiving device
Receiving Device
Digital Signal
Sending devices can also serve as receiving devices, eg: notebooks, pc's and mobile phones
Unit 1 Outcome 2
Outcome Milestones
Consider how information needs of individuals or and organisation could be achieved through the use of a networked system
identify the data and information that typically would flow through the information system
consider how data is to be stored within the network and where it is processed
the network must have wireless capability. Determine whether wired transmissions are also required and identify the communications standard to be used
determine which network devices are needed
Draw a physical representation of the network
Consider the risks and benefits of using the network for intended users
Unit 1 Outcome 2
Steps to Follow
Identify the information needs of individuals,
from the scenario provided and your own observations.
Describe the purpose of the proposed networked information system.
a local area network with wireless connectivity
access to the internet
number of users
peer-to-peer network or a client-server network? Why?
Identify the data and information that would flow within the information system and the location in which the data would be stored.
Identify which portable computers or devices are required to use the network.
wired connection to some devices
wireless environment on its own
Identify the number of work groups that will operate and determine the number of switches (if any) required. Consider whether a router is needed.
Determine whether communications devices are necessary
internet access - cable, ADSL2+, ?.
Unit 1 Outcome 2
Steps to Follow - continued
Determine whether communications devices are necessary
internet access - cable, ADSL2+, ?.
Use a software tool to depict the components of the network and its interactions
Explain the function of components and how data and information are transmitted
Predict the risks and benefits for intended users
security threats to data and information
shared resources
access to the internet
reliable communications via email
such as a printer
accepts data, instructions or information
Notebooks, computers, tablets, smartphones and other sending devices usually have a built in communications device
consists of individual electric pulses that represent the bits grouped together into bytes
Early networks used analogue signals
a continuous electrical wave
computers process data as digital signals
modem was used to convert between analogue and digital
a collection of computers and devices connected by communication channels
allows sharing of resources
facilitates communication
can be internal to an organisation
cover the world - internet
networks exist for sharing information and resources
Local area networks and wide area networks are types of networks common in use.
The type of network refers to the area over which the network provides connectivity
connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area
home, school, office building, closely positioned group of buildings.
each computer or device on the network is a
nodes can be wireless or connected via cables
a wireless LAN (
) uses wireless media such as radio waves
computers and devices that access a WLAN must have built in wireless capability
a WLAN usually communicates with a wired LAN for access to resources such as software, hardware or the internet
Types of Networks
Organisations typically use an
to publish event calenders, policies, procedure manuals and technical support files, and allow access to documents required for group work.
Often includes access to the internet and intranet pages often include links to internet sites relevant to the organisation.
uses a web server, supports multimedia webpages coded in HTML and is accessible via a web browser.
facilitates communication allowing employees to work in groups
Users can access information faster
reduces paper waste, moves documents and processes to the intranet, on demand printing is all that is required
improves ease of use. Point and click technology provides easy access to hyperlinked documents.
Effectiveness benefits of an intranet
allows restricted access to company information
provides dynamic information - documents can be updated more easily and be kept up to date
allows connection across different network platforms - able to communicate easily using browser software - HTML code used by webpages is universal across all platforms
data is more accessible - can be accessed from anywhere if the user is authorised
supports communication via audio and video rather than just text and images
Types of Networks
Home Network
If you have multiple computers in your home or home office you can connect them together with a
home network
desktop computers, notebooks, tables and smartphones can all communicate with each other
all computers can be connected to the internet at the same time
al computers can share peripherals such as a scanner, printer or a network attacked storage device
each networked computer is able to play multiplayer games with players on other computers in the house
smart tv's can connect to the internet
Network Architecture
Network architecture refers to the logical design of components of the network, number and types of
network resources
Includes communication devices and types of physical wireless transmission media used to connect components.
Read set text
pages 80 - 90
Answer Test Your Knowledge Questions 1 - 4
Types of Networks
Wide Area Network (WAN)
wide area network (WAN)
covers a large geographical area
uses communication channel that combines may types of media such as
telephone lines
radio waves
can be one large network
can consist of two or more LAN's connected together
the internet is the worlds largest WAN
mobile phones should be considered to be operating in their own WAN
Network Architecture
also allows for
file sharing
website hosting
email management
access to shared printers
other computers on the network, called clients rely on the server for resources
higher costs related than peer-to-peer
requires ongoing technical support and maintenance
server does though provide more storage space and power
dedicated servers
may perform a specific task
file severs
print servers
database servers
network servers
server rack is generally located in another temperature controlled room
Client Server Networks
In a
client-server network
a server, sometimes called the host, controls access to hardware and software on the network and provides centralised storage for programs, data and information.
In the Past
network administrators dedicated each server to a particular task
easy to detect problems but doesn't take advantage of todays powerful server technology
many servers now are virtual rather than physical
one physical server cn be converted to multiple virtal machines
client-server LAN is typically most efficient to connect 10 or more computers
most client server LAN's have a
network administrator
in charge of the network because of their larger size
Network Architecture
each node shares hardware and data with all other computers on the network
each computer can store files on its own storage device or on another computer
each computer contains a client operating system with basic networking capability and application software
all share any peripheral device attached to any computer
popular for homes where a login server is neither needed nor practical
peer-to-peer (P2P)
network is a simple inexpensive network to connect fewer than 10 computers.
Another form of peer-to-peer is
internet peer-to-peer network
Internet peer-to-peer
enables users with the same networking software to connect to one another's HDD's and exchange files directly.
early P2P programs stirred up controversy about copyright infringement of music
advantage for business - no network to maintain
disadvantage - exposes computer to possible security violation
exposure to possible malicious software such as viruses and Trojans
Network Architecture
uses encryption to ensure files and messages are secure.
provides secure connection over the internet allowing businesses to extend their private network.
allows communication and information sharing with remote branches and traveling salespeople
Virtual private network (VPN)
virtual private network (VPN)
allows business to use a WAN to create a private network that links remote sites and users to the business's head office.
client-server LAN is typically most efficient to connect 10 or more computers
most client server LAN's have a
network administrator
in charge of the network because of their larger size
In the Past
prior to VPN over the internet, offices used leased telephone lines to expand their private network.
these connections formed a WAN for the organisation
while reliable and secure the were expensive to operate
Think about
Why would a peer-to-peer network not be used in organisations with more than 10 computers?
P2P Downloads: Torrents
Think About Computing
For each file-sharing internet site that has been forced to shut down because of copyright violations, many more have been launched in their place. How can the rites of artists, film makers and TV producers be properly protected?
Should governments be doing more? Or is it the responsibility of society to do the right thing?
Look for recent examples or attempts to regulate or control torrent sites. How successful have these measures been?
Debate Issue: Is it legal to download music and video files?
Read Pages 90 - 96
Test Your Knowledge
Answer questions 5 - 13
VCE Computing Units 1 & 2 Timeline
provides a connecting point for cables in a LAN
stores addresses of every device connected to it
when a packet enters the switch it uses simple logic to detect the destination and sends the packet down the only cable that conatins that address
the two devices act like they are directly connected
Communications Devices
used to connect multiple networks
several LAN's
a LAN and a WAN
connects LAN's and WAN's irrespective of the hardware and network communications protocol
switch uses a nodes MAC (Media Access Control) address to determine which path to send a packet
router receives TCP/IP packets, identifies source IP address, and forwards packets to their destination
Communications Devices
Broadband Routers
Routers for home networks (often called broadband routers) can also join multiple networks.
home LAN to internet WAN
Wireless broadband routers
Communications Devices
combine functions of;
a basic router (connecting LAN to internet)
a switch (for devices connected by cable)
a firewall (security measure)
wireless acess point (wireless connectivity)
Wireless broadband routers
NBN devices
National Broadband Network (NBN)
national network of communication infrastructure
uses lighting fast fiber optic fixed wireless and satellite technology
homes connected to the NBN require a router capable of supporting faster download speeds
type of broadband router used as a bridge between LAN and internet depends on type of connection provided by Internet Service Provider (ISP)
cable connection uses high bandwidth
same broadband connection as television via Foxtel
usually sourced from ISP, has to be rgistered on ISP's network
an Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
internet access using copper wiring in telephone lines
Communications Devices
NBN Utility Box
also known as the Premises Connection Device (PCD) installed outside house
Homeowners ISP arranges for NBN connection box, also known as a Network Termination Device (NTD) to be installed in the home
fibre optic cable connects the PCD to the NTD
2 voice ports on left
when copper is-based connections are phased out, one wil be used for phone over fiber optic NBN.
One of the 4 data ports is used to joun the connection box to the hoe networks router
Communications Devices
Network Interface Cards and Wireless Adapters
a Network interface card (NIC)
inserted into expansion slot of a PC
or may be built into the motherboard
a wireless adapter performs the function of a NIC for a notebook
Wireless access point
used on a wireless LAN
acts as a transmitter and receiver of wireless radio signals
often connected to a wired network backbone for faster transmission
mostly used in business networks where spaces need wireless coverage
home networks don't need an access point
Communications Devices
Wireless extender
wireless extenders (wireless repeaters) increase the area covered by a wireless network
expands coverage throughout the home or office
picks up wireless signal and re broadcasts it
allows users to overcome obstacles and enhances signal quality
location of the extender is critical. too close could interfeer with signal, too far may not be enough signal to enhance
Summary of wireless technologies
components in wireless networks have strengths and limitations in terms of
data transfer rate
Communications Devices
Summary of wireless technologies
Read pages
96 - 100
Answer questions
14 - 22
a server operating on a client server network requires an operating system and application software that differs from that on a desktop or laptop
servers can share data with multiple users and reduce bottlenecks
a server is often assigned a particular role in a network and uses specialised software to support its function.
email services
internet connectivity
file backup
Printer requirements
email server may use Windows Mail Server software
a network operating system (NOS)
system software that organises, controls and coordinates activities on a LAN
administration - adding, deleting, organising users, performing maintenance, backup
file management
device management - coordinating print jobs
Communications Software
network administrators use a variety of software designed to monitor network devices
a network analysis tool or network utility is software to analyse and configure aspects of the network
Network Operating System
Network Analysis Tools
the internet is a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, educational institutions, government departments and individuals.
internet service software includes web browsers, email, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) software and cloud storage.
Web Browsers
application software that allows for viewing of web pages
poplar browsers
Internet Explorer
When the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is entered into the address bar, a web page from that site is downloaded
the web address consists of a protocol, domain name,path to the age and the page name.
a doman name server (DNS) identifies the requested site and ensures data and information are routed to the correct computer.
Search engines such as Google and Yahoo are helpful to locate pages
Search engines maintan a list of words found on the internet, search engines scan the list for words that have been entered in the search request.
Internet Services

Hypertext transfer protocol
better known as http
a set of rules that defines how pages are transferred on the internet
Hypertext transfer protocol secured
better known as https
a communications protocol for secure transmissions over the internet
provides authentication and encryption
widely used for security sensitive processing such as payments and connections to banks
when a connection is made 'https://' is displayed at the start of the URL and a lock symbol appears
Internet Services

transmission of messages and files via computer
email software used to create, send, read, forward, reply and print emails
a client-server network will have a mail server to handle receipt and delivery of mail to and from the LAN over the internet.
File Transfer Protocol
FTP - an internet standard that allows computers to upload and download files.
when you create a web page it needs to be uploaded with associated resources to your ISP's web server using FTP
Internet Services

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
allows users to speak to each other over the internet
high speed internet connection, microphone, VoIP adapter and subscription to a VoIP provider are needed
A VoIP app needs to be installed on a mobile device such as a smartphone
Cloud Storage
saving data to an off-site system maintained by a third party
data is saved to a remote database using the internet
advantages are that data can be accessed from any location that has internet access
encourages collaborative work practices
What are some potential drawbacks of cloud storage?
Read pages
100 - 104
Answer questions
23 - 26
If you could interview the school network administrator what questions would you ask?
Network Standard
defines guidelines that specify the way computers access the medium to which they are attached, the type of medium used, speed of data flow and physical technology used
a standard that defines how two network devices communicate.
Without standards only hardware and software from the same company could be used together. Some widely used network communication standards and
Network Communications Standards
a popular network standard that allows personal computers to contend for access to the network.
popular LAN standard because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to install and maintain.
uses cables to transmit data
speed of data transmitted is expressed as
bits per second (bps)
not very fast by today's standard 10 Mbps
a second standard
Fast Ethernet
transmits at 100Mbps, 10 times faster
Gigabit Ethernet
is now in use in many graphic design studios - 10 times faster again
Network Communications Standards
When a workstation on an Ethernet network wants to transmit, it checks the network to see if it is not busy then broadcasts a
a switch ensures that if the packet is addressed to workstation , only workstation will read it.
if two workstations simultaneously check the network, find it is not busy and send packets at the same time a collision occurs
when a collision occurs a signal travels over the network to indicate that there is a 'jam'. Workstations then wait a random amount of time before resending packets.
Network Communications Standards
Network Protocol
a set of rules or standards used for communication that work together to help devices to communicate
only two computers that have the same
network protocol
can communicate on the network
computers may have several different protocols installed and running to allow for communication
a network standard that manages the transmission of data by breaking it up into packets and transmitting those packets over the internet
an important part of the IP protocol is the IP address
IP addressing standard 4 numbers between 0 and 255, separated by full stops - provides a unique address for each computer on the network
When a computer sends data over the network it is divided into packets
packets contain data, recipient data (destination), sender data (origin) and sequence to reassemble
Packet Switching
802.11 standard
developed to specify how two wireless computers or devices communicate via radio waves
uses techniques similar to the Ethernet standard therefore easy to integrate into existing Ethernet networks
range of wireless communication is:
up to 300m in open areas outside
approx 50 meters inside buildings
popular in locations where there is no existing wired system or where building construction makes it difficult to add a wired network
wi-fi (wireless fidelity)
identifies any network based on the 802.11 standards
802.11b and 802.11g employ direct sequence spread technology to avoid interference from microwave ovens, blue tooth deices and cordless phones
802.11n can carry more data due to the higher frequency
802.11ac has less interference from neighboring networks and other devices because the 5GHz band is not populated by many devices. Also makes use of
- detects where devices are and intensifies signal in that direction
Sending and receiving devices
initiate or accept transmission of data, instructions and information
mid range servers
Web enabled hand held devices provide access to internet and email from any location - smartphones and GPS
Test Your Knowledge
Questions 27 - 32

Read Pages
104 - 109
Unit 1 Outcome 2
Documents Required for Assessment
A brief report that identifies:
information needs of the organisation
purpose of the network
type of network needed to support the information system
A written, oral or visual presentation that outlines your recommendation in terms if the network configuration and a rationale for the decisions made; points to discuss are;
LAN, WAN or combination of both
peer-to-peer or client server LAN
number and nature of servers if a client server network is recommended
communications standard(s) to be used
communications devices (wireless access points, switches and routers)
transmission media (physical and wireless or just wireless)
inclusion of a firewall if internet access is recommended.
A network diagram
A report that predicts the risks and benefits for intended users.
Smart Phones
Mobile Devices Connected to Networks

Handheld data collection devices
GPS Devices
Mobile Devices Connected to Networks

Wearable technology
Game consoles
a communications channel consists of one or more
transmission media
transmission media are either physical or wireless
Physical transmission media
wire, cable or fiber optics
Wireless transmission media
radio, microwave and infrared signals
Communications Channel

Physical transmission media used in communications include twisted pair cables and fibre optic cables.
typically used in buildings or underground
used in Ethernet LAN's
wireless LAN's rely on physical cables to transmit data between a switch or router and a wi-fi device or wireless access point
Physical Transmission Media
Twisted-pair cables
commonly used transmission media for network cabling and telephone systems
each twisted pair consists of two separate insulated copper wires that are twisted together
Communications Channel

core consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals.
each strand is called an optical fibre
Fibre optic cable
Fibre optic v's twisted pair
Read Pages 110 - 121
Test Your Knowledge
Answer questions 33 - 37
Unit 1 Outcome 2
Be Your Best Tutoring is a small business located in a building in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne. It offers after school and weekend tutoring for primary and secondary school students. Sarah Brown is the owner-operator of the business. She employs 10 part-time tutors. The building consists of a main office area for Sarah, a front reception area, a large room that contains four smaller rooms used for tutoring sessions, and a reasonably sized store room.
At present, all of the computing devices used in the business are standalone devices. Each tutor room contains a stand-alone desktop computer so tutors can access the resources needed for each session. Be Your Best Tutoring is a successful business and the number of clients is growing because of the excellent reputation of the company in the local community, so Sarah has decided to install a computing network within the building.

designed to provide infrastructure for affordable, reliable, high speed internet and telephone access
requires a variety of technologies
Original proposal
fibre optic
$37.4 billion
Revised specifications
$29.5 billion
Government argues that this is more than adequate for domestic connections
Households where it is impractical to install (approx 10%) will connect via wireless and satellite
Wireless Transmission Media
used when it is inconvenient, impractical or impossible to install cables
with the faster speeds of 802.11ac standard, wireless connections are on a par with wired
an 802.11ac wireless router operates on the 5GHz bandwidth but can still run on the 2.4GHz network simultaneously
Near field communication
form of contactless communication between devices like smartphones or tablets
user is able to wave smartphone over a NFC compatible receiver to send information without a formal connection
pay for goods
parking meter
an unpowered chip (tag) can be used with an NFC device that reads it using electromagnetic induction
a smartphone can be paired with an NFC tag which can be programmed by apps to automate tasks
small, cheap, easy to produce
Cellular Radio
mobile phone - telephone device, uses radio signals to transmit voice and data signals
cellular radio - a form of broadcast radio used widely for mobile communications, specifically mobile phones.
smartphones can communicate with other phones, access the web, send and receive email, chat rooms connect to school or office networks
1G - transmitted analogue only
2G - digital data at speeds from 9.6 - 19.2Kbps
3G - digital data at speeds from 200Kbps - 2Mbps
4G - digital data at speeds from 2Mbps - 12Mbps
radio waves that provide high speed signal transmission
involves sending signals from one microwave station to another
uses line of sight transmission
must transmit in a straight line with no obstructions between antennas
often sit on top of mountains, towers and buildings
significantly faster than fiber optic transmissions which send lazer light pulses down glass strands
Microwave transmission is used in environments where installing physical transmission media is difficult or impossible
Communications Satellite
a space station the at receives microwave signals from an earth based station
amplifies the signals and broadcasts the signals back over a wide area to any number of earth based stations
other devices such as hand-held computers and GPS receivers can also function as earth-based stations
transmission from earth-based station to a satellite is an uplink
transmission from satellite to earth-based station is a downlink
communications satellites are placed approximately 37 000km above the earths equator
Security Threats
integrity and security of data and information can be threatened by a number of actions, devices and events
threats can be accidental or deliberate.
Accidental Threats
deleting of files
sending email attachments to wrong recipient
loss of portable storage
strategic business information or confidential data could fall into the wrong hands
Deliberate Threats
Malware (viruses, worms, Trogans, adaware), spyware
Deliberate Threats
a computer program that can destroy files and alter performance of the OS
can spread over a network to connected computers
amount of damage caused depends on the maliciousness of the author
some spread from file to file without causing any real damage other than taking up storage space
many are sinister actively destroying files, overwriting boot sectors on hard drives rendering computer unbootable, altering the directory so files cannot be accessed
increasing number of backdoor programs allow writers to take control of computers remotely.
gathers information about a user through an internet connection without the users knowledge
often bundled with free software
monitors activity and transmits it to a third party
copies itself repeatedly in memory over a network, uses up resources, can shut system down
actively transmits itselfover a network to infect other computers
Deliberate Threats
pretend to be one thing but are really performing a malicious function
can pretend to be a game while collecting email addresses stored on your computer and sending them to spammers
Worms and Trogans use vulnerabilities in email programs to distribute themselves
Logic Bombs
programs written to do something unexpected such as delete all your files at a triggered event, such as a date.
a type of Trogan, designed to monitor and log keystrokes
some used for legitimate purposes - parental control, tracking non-work related activities
majority related to stealing online payment system data
Deliberate Threats
sending an email falsely claiming to be an enterprise in an attempt to scam private information for identity theft
anti-virus and anti-spyware programs can be installed to guard against malicious attacks
need to be updated regularly to protect against latest threats
Event-based threats
power surge - surge protector
hard-drive crash or malfunction - special software may retrieve files - success not guaranteed
Measures to Secure Networks
prevent unauthorised access to the network from outsiders
Measures to Secure Networks
provide approximately 10 minutes of reserve power, sufficient time to shut down network in an orderly way so as to not lose data
Uniteruptable power supplies
Wireless Security
wi-fi network should have a firewall and ensure equipment uses one or more wireless security standards to avoid unauthorised access
wireless access point should be configured to not broadcast network name and only allow access to certain devices
wi-fi protected access (WPA or WPA2) - defines how to encrypt data as it travels across wireless networks - all devices on the network must use the same encryption settings
wi-fi protected setup (WPS) - push button connection to attach devices to the network
medium to large networks can be complex with:
wireless access points
Technical support staff need a method of representing
lines represent cables
icons represent communication devices
Network Diagrams
Network Physical Designs
firewall restricts traffic
web server hods static items
e-commerce server provides interaction with customer
internal business server contains catalog and customer database
Figure not based on building plans
physical buildings not important in network diagram but is necessary to identify work areas
Legal Responsibilities
Actions for which a person can be held accountable for by law
breaching legal responsibility
implication of litigation
communication and storage of information/security
unauthorised users
Legal and Ethical Responsibilities
Ethical Responsibilities
following the correct moral path
consequences of not adhering
loss of respect
loss of customers
criticism from users
Read Pages 122 - 126
Test Your Knowledge
Answer questions 38 - 46
Start planning your network diagram for Outcome 2
explicit material not stored or accessible defamatory comments are not posted in email, messages or on websites
communications between users cannot be intercepted
Resolving legal, ethical and social tensions
Six steps that an organisation can use to solve a legal, ethical or social tension
Identify the problem:
What decision has to be made and what facts are required?
Identify the stakeholders:
Who are they? What interests do they have? Who is the key player?
Identify possible alternatives:
What options are available? What are the likely consequences?
Identify ethical standards:
Are there any applicable laws? Are there any morals or standards that could be applied? Is there a precedent?
Evaluate options:
Identify strengths and weaknesses. Identify the option that cause least harm. Can the decision be reversed?
Make a decision:
Select the preferred option. Justify the option. Notify all stakeholders of the decision.
Legal and Ethical Responsibilities
Security Practices
Network professionals should ensure that networks are safe from accidental, deliberate and event based threats
includes measures to protect communication and storage of data and information such as firewalls and security protocols that apply encryption techniques
user logins and passwords
test that respondent is human
Personal Security Practices
users of networked systems should apply safe practices including checking default privacy settings to protect personal information
using online filtering techniques to restrict content that can be communicated
social media users should activate privacy settings to avoid divulging personal data
Legal and Ethical Responsibilities
Responsibilities of network users
Internet etiquette/netiquette - guidelines regarding how to behave when communicating online
avoid bad language
don't type in capitals
no emoticons for formal emails
remove personal information from original sender when forwarding email
obey online discussion forum rules
using a handle can protect your personal information
don't open emails from unknown sources
don't make defamatory or discriminatory comments on social media
don't infringe on intellectual property rights
ensure quoted sources are reliable and authentic
respect others privacy
Benefits of using a network
Legal and Ethical Responsibilities
facilitating communications
sharing hardware
sharing data and information
sharing software
transferring funds
Risks of using a network
breaches of security
User dependence
Social networks
Apply Your Knowledge
XYZ Engineering Task
XYZ Engineering
Full transcript