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Our Cosmic Address: Space Exploration

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A. Nere

on 25 October 2017

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Transcript of Our Cosmic Address: Space Exploration

Early Astronomy
Humans have been mapping stars and tracking planets for centuries

Ancient astronomers were able to differentiate between stars and planets because stars remain relatively fixed over the centuries while the planets appear to move over time


Ancient Cultures that studied astronomy:
Babylonians
Chinese
Indians
Greeks
Romans
Egyptians
Greeks
For the Greeks and other cultures, astronomy was closely related to religion. Greek astronomers mapped out constellations and named them for their Gods.

Aristotle
Proved the Earth is round by making several observations
Our Cosmic Address:
Understanding the Solar System

Constellations also allowed travelers to navigate while sailing since stars remain relatively fixed
Ptolemy
Proposed a geocentric or "Earth-centered model of the universe
Copernicus
Proposed the heliocentric or "sun-centered" model of the universe
Circa 100 A.D.
Circa 350 B.C.
Circa 1508
Giordano Bruno
Circa 1576
Proposed the idea that the sun is a star
Galileo and His Telescope
Circa 1609
Galileo proves that the Earth revolves around the sun with observations made with a telescope
Observed phases of Venus, craters on the moon, and Jupiter's four biggest moons
Post Galileo
For Hundreds of years after Galileo first pointed his telescope to the skies, the telescope remained our most valuable tool in understanding our solar system until the development of rocketry in the early 1900s.
The Space Race
1957
U.S. was in a cold war with the U.S.S.R. (Soviet Russia)
We wanted to beat them into Space because were nervous about their advances in technology and who would control the "ultimate high ground"
The Space Race
1957 - USSR Launches the first man-made satellite Sputnik 1
Modern Space Travel Definitions
Probe - any unmanned space craft sent to explore the solar system
Fly by
Orbiter
Lander
Rover

Capsule - Spacecraft designed to transport a small amout of astronauts (1-3)

Shuttle - Spacecraft designed to transport a larger number of astronauts and equipment

1958 - U.S. Launches its first satellite - Explorer 1
First Humans in Space
April 1961 - Russian Yuri Gargaran becomes the first human in Space


May 1961 American Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space (Mercury Missions)
February 1962 - American John Glenn becomes the first man to orbit Earth (Mercury Missions)
June 1962 - Russian Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space.
Apollo Missions: The First Men to leave Earth orbit and to walk on the moon
December 1968 - Apollo 8 is the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit and take humans around the moon
July 1969 - Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin become the first men to walk on the surface of the moon
The last Apollo
December 1972 - Apollo 17 to the last astronauts to ever leave Earth orbit to the moon.
Since the Apollo missions ended, we have not returned to the moon or any other planet. The astronauts that have traveled into Space since then have not left Earth orbit
Low Earth Orbit Missions:
1981-2011 Space Shuttle - Reusable spacecraft designed to shuttle astronauts back and forth from low earth orbit
1998-present International Space Station (ISS)
1990-present
Hubble Space Telescope
Cooperative Space Lab in low Earth orbit
Houses 6 astronauts at a time who conduct experiments in microgravity
Can help us prepare for future manned missions (lunar, mars)
Telescope in low Earth orbit
Can take extremely high-resolution pictures because it is outside of the Earth's atmosphere
The hubble can take pictures of other galaxies
Studying our solar system:
Most of our knowledge about other objects in our solar system comes from unmanned missions (probes)
Probes can be landers, orbiters, or rovers
Can take pictures and collect data about planets and other objects using instruments (thermometers, barometers, soil analysis)
Notable Probes
Mariner Missons
Launch: 1962
Type: Fly-by, orbiter
Purpose: To visit the other terrestrial planets and take close-up pictures of Mercury, Venus, and Mars
Viking Missions
Launch: 1976
Type: Lander
Purpose: To land on and study the surface of Mars
Voyager
Launch: 1977
Type: Fly by
Purpose: To visit and study the Jovian Planets (gas giants)
Spirit and Opportunity
Launch: 2003
Type: Rovers
Purpose: To able to explore and study the surface of Mars
Curiousity
Launch Date: 2011
Type: Rover
Purpose: To perform extensive experiments on the surface of Mars
The Future of Space Travel:
Nasa is currently considering leasing space craft from privately owned companies
This would get Americans back into space without having to rely on other countries
Boeing Space Capsule
Full transcript