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The Nigrescence Theory

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Amber Goodwin

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of The Nigrescence Theory

The Psychological Nigrescence Theory
The Original Theory
Psychological Illness to Psychological well-being
5 Stages
Nigrescence? What's that?
French term for turning or becoming Black
1971
William E. Cross, Jr
process of accepting and affirming a Black identity in an American context by moving from Black self-hatred to Black-acceptance

Background Information
Stage 1:
Pre-Encounter
Mainstream values
Pro-White
Anti-Black
Low self-esteem
impaired personality
self-hatred
Stage 2: Encounter
Re-evaluation
Stage 3:
Immersion-Emersion
Pro-Black
Anti-White
Immersion
Emersion
Re-evaluation
calmer
rational
Anti-White Sentiment
Stage 4: Internalization
ACCEPTANCE
Race Equally Important
Background of Existence
Activism
Stage 5:
Internalization-Commitment
Social Change
Civil Rights
Revised Model
1991
Differences in personal identity and reference group orientation
Introduction of race salience to discussion of nigrescence identities
Original 5 Stages
Important Changes
Pre-Encounter
Internalization

Personal Identity:
general personality or overall self-concept common to the
psychological
makeup of all human beings
a minor component in nigrescence
Reference group orientation:
basis of nigrescence theory
defines the complex
social groups
used by the person to make sense of
oneself as a

social being
Race Salience:
refers to the importance or significance of race in a person's approach to life
captured across two dimensions:
degree of importance
the direction of the valence
range:
low to high in importance and from positive to negative in attractiveness (valence)

importance
- +
attractiveness
a high salience for race with a negative valence (anti-Black)
high salience for race with a positive valence (pro-Black)
Stage 3:
Immersion-Emersion
Black Nationalism:
positive internalization of being Black
Characterized by pride and self-acceptance
Number of Identities
Original Model's Idea of Identity
2 Parts of A Single Identity:

1. Pro-Black

2. Anti-White
Stages 4 & 5: Internalization
Stages four and five of the revised Nigrescence Theory have been collapsed together

Multiple Internalization Identities
Amber Goodwin & Diana Garrett
Pro-Black
Anti-White
Two Separate Identities
Stage 1:
Pre-Encounter
describes the degree of importance of race in the lives of most persons who are exemplars of Pre-Encounter
Black Nationtionalist: social and political activism, empowerment
Biculturalist:
Typical sense of Blackness & sense of Americanist
Multiculturalist:
matrix of 3 or more cultural frames of reference
Black Identity
+
gender

or
sexual orientation
or

other reference of racial orientation
race salience is used instead of the term pro-White to describe degree of importance of race
Pre-Encounter Assimilation
pro-American or mainstream identity
race is not viewed as important
not anti-Black; race has a low salience (with neutral valence)
Assimilation has no relationship to self-esteem
Pre-Encounter Anti-Black
Low-Self Esteem
Hate Blacks and Being Black
Being Black carries high negative salience
Miseducation and Self-Hatred
hold negative stereotypical beliefs from mainstream society
EXREME Miseducation:
personalization of neg. stereotypes
rejection of Blackness at deep structural level (Black self-hatred
fuse negative stereotypes into personal identity
Summary
Pre-Encounter
Encounter
Immersion-Emersion
Internalization-Commitment/Internalization
References
Cokley, Cross, Smith, Vandiver, and Frank Worrell. "Cross's Nigrescence Model: From
Theory to Scale to Theory." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development
29 (2001): 174-200. Web. 9 Oct 2013.

Vandiver, Beverly. "Psychological Nigrescence Revisited: Introduction and Overview."
Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 29 (2001): 165-173.
Web. 9 Oct 2013.
(going into)
episodes or events
Transition
(coming out of)
ID #1
ID #2
Full transcript