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Participant Oriented Approach
Transcript of Participant Oriented Approach
Strengths of the Participant-Oriented Approach
Overview of Approach
Many different models, but all include stakeholders.
Published two books in the 1980's - made a huge impact on evaluation.
More philosophical than Stake's approaches.
New criteria: credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability.
Egon Guba & Yvonna Lincoln
Weaknesses of the Participant-Oriented Approach
1. Biases and Decreased Credibility
Example of an Assessment
"Improving Use of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Through Participant Oriented Evaluations" by David Williams.
Brigham Young University - major evaluation of 11 online courses for over 450 students.
Director of Instructional Design
Faculty that taught 11 online courses
Students enrolled in the online courses
Theorists were not focused on what was really happening in programs that were being evaluated.
New evaluation approaches arose.
Evaluation practitioners relied on traditional methods to determine whether program goals were met.
Revolutionary in how evaluators thought about assessment.
Focus: Portraying judgments of participants.
Developed the Countenance Framework & the Responsive Evaluation.
2. Increased Time Commitments and Costs
2. Organizational Learning
3. Increased Understanding
Four major characteristics:
Direct & active participant involvement.
Professional evaluator present.
Evaluators have an understanding of the evaluation process.
Involvement of program staff ≠ Participative evaluation.
Qualitative methods ≠ Participative evaluation.
Definition of Participant-Oriented Evaluation Approach
Defined by Jean King in the Encyclopedia of Evaluation.
Definition means that the evaluation actively involves the stakeholders with the evaluation.
Naturalistic Evaluation & Stakeholder Participation
Participatory Evaluation Today
Present Day Evaluations
Three main characteristics that differentiate participatory approaches:
1. Control over the evaluation or technical decision-making process
2. Stakeholder selection
3. Depth of participation
The stakeholders were heavily involved in this assessment from the beginning, middle, to the end.
Level of Involvement?
How well the courses were implemented
How well the students participated
How well the faculty felt about teaching online
What should be done to enhance future online courses
What did it measure?
Participatory Approaches & Contexts
Fitzpatrick, J. L., Sanders, J. R., & Worthen, B. R.
(2011). Program evaluation: alternative approaches and practical guidelines. (4 ed., pp. 189-230). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education.
Williams, D. D. (2002). Improving use of learning
technologies in higher education through participant oriented evaluations. Educational Technology & Society, 5(3),