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Copy of Rise and Fall of Ancient Civilizations
Transcript of Copy of Rise and Fall of Ancient Civilizations
Settlements around the World
Fertile Crescent Empires
Common Feature among ALL civilizations:
Fertile River Valley
A large band of fertile land in the midst of the desert and mountains.
"the land between two rivers"
Located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
The rivers flooded unpredictably yearly leaving behind fertile land.
What is fertile land good for?
Why might unpredictable flooding be a problem?
Originally from northern Mesopotamia.
They were frequently invaded due to their locations.
By 900 B.C. Assyrian rule included all of Mesopotamia as well as parts of Asia Minor and Egypt
Phoenicia was located on the western end of the Fertile Crescent.
Due to it's location on the Mediterranean Sea it emerged as a major trading center.
Persia is located in modern day Iran.
Formed around fertile river valleys and expanded due to trade.
Cyrus the Great founded the Persian Empire in 539 B.C.E.
Formed around the Nile River.
Runs 4000 miles long through North Africa.
The river floods predictably yearly.
Why is this important?
How is this different from Mesopotamia?
The delta is where the richest soil is found.
The mouth of the river.
The Sahara Desert surrounds Egypt providing protection from invaders.
Cataracts offered protection for Egypt.
A stretch of river with rocks, rapids and swift currents.
India is a subcontinent.
India is a part of Asia however because of it's geographical features it is cut off from the continent making it independent.
The Indus and Ganges River flood providing fertile soil.
To the north the Himalaya and Hindu Kush Mountains provide protection for India.
In southern India is the Deccan Plateau, a desert, providing protection.
Civilizations begin between the Huang He (Yellow) River and Yangtze River
The Plateau of Tibet provided fertile soil as well.
To the west were the Himalaya Mountains and the Gobi Desert providing protection
Located in the northwest Mediterranean Sea on the continent of Europe.
Greece had poor soil and few natural resources.
Greece has very diverse geography.
Some areas are very hilly others are mountainous breaking it up into independent city-states.
Caused them to turn to trade.
Rome has several geographical advantages:
Located on a peninsula- surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea.
To the north is it protected by the Alps (mountains).
The Tiber River provided mild climate and rich soil.
Muslim Civilizations are located on the Arabian Peninsula.
Consisted of harsh land with desert interior therefore limited farming.
Trade routes converged at the Arabian Peninsula- their economy was based on trade.
Africa's geography is very diverse.
Great Rift Valley
Civilizations that Rise and Fall within Mesopotamia:
Writing to Understand:
How did different geographic issues influence settlement, trading and sustainability? Use the map, sources and your notes to provide examples.
Governments in Ancient Civilizations
What is Government?
Government is a form or system of rules by which a community, civilization or country is governed.
Why do we need government?
Who gets to run the government?
The more complex a society and the more they interact with other societies the more complex the government.
During the developments of civilizations organized government forms in order to:
control building projects
keep track of economic transactions
Values and beliefs of a group of people typically determine how government is organized.
Monarchy: A government by a single person who received power by birth.
A king or queen who has unlimited power.
Dynasty: A series of rulers from the same family.
Theocracy: A government ruled by a person, or group, who is also a religious figure
Influence of Religion
Republic: A representative government with an emphasis on rule of law
Checks and Balances: Each part of a government can impose certain constraints upon other parts of the government.
Example: The President cannot declare war on a country unless Congress approves.
Democracy: Government by the rule of the people, majority rules
Bureaucracy: A highly structured organization managed by officials in order to help a rule maintain order and control.
Oligarchy: A government where a small group exercised complete control.
Religious figures often interpreted the will of the gods therefore people looked to them for direction.
Often times they became powerful leaders within ancient civilizations.
Because the ruler is a religious leader government and religion are intertwined.
The type of government in which ALL eligible voters vote directly on an issue.
A government in which the people elect representatives and give them the power to govern.
Direct Democracy developed over time in Athens.
The Archon (chief of state) was the leader of Athens. Almost like the president of the U.S.
Must have completed military training
Would a Direct Democracy work in the United States? Why?
The Pharaoh was the head of the government.
Pharaohs were thought to be a god in human form.
They had absolute power and their word was law.
Pharaoh's acted as judges as well as leaders in the Egyptian army.
Caliph's ruled Muslim civilizations.
They were thought to be successors of the prophet Muhammad.
As Egypt grew the kingdom became to large.
The pharaoh appointed officials, typically his relatives, to help him rule.
They had no power on their own and only acted upon the the pharaoh's wishes.
After 2000 B.C. people settled in small villages.
Over time these villages began to band together under regional leaders known as rajas.
The raja was mainly a military leader who vowed to protect the people.
Darius I expanded the Persian empire.
As the the empire expanded Darius I could not maintain control.
He chose satraps to govern the region in the name of Darius.
Darius would send officials to check up on the satraps to make sure they were obeying his wishes.
Sparta was led by two kings who served as military commanders.
There was also a small group of elected council members that made decisions.
Problems disrupted the Roman republic.
A group of individuals set up a triumvirate.
A triumvirate is a ruling body of three.
There were two triumvirates in Rome. Both failed due to civil war among the rulers.
The monarch shares power with an elected group of legislatures.
China was ruled by dynasties.
The Shang dynasty was a strong monarchy however after 600 years the Zhou armies took over.
To gain acceptance the Zhou ruled by the mandate of heaven.
The gods would support a just ruler but would not allow a corrupt one to hold power.
The mandate of heaven later explained the dynastic cycle in China.
The rise and fall of dynasties in China.
City- states were ruled by dynasties.
Empire: A group of nations or people ruled over by an emperor.
Two classes of people were in Rome:
Patricians: group of people who controlled every aspect of Roman society.
Plebeians: common people.
Plebeians challenged the Patricians power in order to expand their rights.
Rome created three branches to check and balance one another.
This ensured no one became too powerful.
509 B.C. Romans create a republic where the people elect representation.
Republic vs. Empire
Elected officials lead.
An Emperor leads.
Usually ruled for a year.
Rules for life although many were assassinated.
Appointed by the Senate.
Gained rule by inheritance or by force.
Alexander the Great: