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the migration of the Scots (1830-1939)
Transcript of the migration of the Scots (1830-1939)
the Geography of Scotland: add in key features to your map
"Pull factors" are positive things about a new place that make you wish to go there
Pull factors included:
higher wages in e.g. England, USA
opportunities in the army of the Empire.
the industries of Glasgow- factory work, weaving, shipbuilding etc.
opportunities for skilled workers; weavers in Canada, stonemasons in USA.
opportunities for literate men: administrators in the Empire, shipping clerks.
Merchant navy- many Scots were engineers.
At different times during our period, Scots got help to leave:
the Highlands and Islands Emigration Society helped people emigrate from e.g. Skye.
Barnardos helped orphan children leave for e.g. Canada.
Individual landlords moved crofters to the coasts, or to new countries with paid passages.
Agents from the Empire gave talks on new places.
Young women sometimes got free or cheap passage as they were needed as domestic servants and also as new wives for lonely workers.
Let's look at "push" factors first:
A push factor is a negative reason for a person to want from one place to another.
Ask yourself: "what might cause a person to be dissatisfied with where he or she lives?"
Scots found different challenges at different times, which made them leave.
Here are a few:
Famine (like the 1840s potato famine affecting the highlands)
Unemployment: traditional industries, at times, went into decline.
The harshness of country life.
Technological change: over our period, there was a big change in farming technology which meant...
Poverty: life in rural areas especially, was hard and pay was often low.
you will need detail on:
precisely what pushed people out of certain areas.
which people were able to go and why?
e.g. stonemasons from Aberdeenshire could double their wages building new cities and towns in the USA.
Be as precise as you can.
migration simply means to move
to another place.
emigration means to leave a place.
immigration means to arrive in a new place.
now, take away some of the technology and scientific advances we have made since our era.
potato blight- 1840s
decline in traditional industries
local artesans can't compete...
new farm machinery
to USA, Canada
to India, NZ, Australia and more...
decline in weaving
low wages, sheep,
the army, civil service
trade, missionary work
the army, civil service
weaving, skilled work,