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Unit 17, P1, M1.
Transcript of Unit 17, P1, M1.
During this presentation I will be defining the word personality and looking at how personality affects sporting performance. Some of the things I will be looking at include Marten's schematic view, pshycodynamic theory, trait theory, situational approach and interactional approach. As well as this I will be looking at type A and type B personalities and how they also influence sporting performance.
There are a few different definitions of personality one of these is;
The combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character
Another definition of personality is;
Distinctive qualities of a person, especially those distinguishing personal characteristics that make one socially appealing.
Psychodynamic theory says that personality is made up of two different parts rather than three. It tries to understand the whole individual rather than just specific parts of personality. It is an important theory as it helps us understand that not all actions are conscious choice. These two parts are conscious and unconscious sections of personality.
The first part of this theory is called instinctive drive; this is situated in the unconscious part of your personality and makes us act without conscious thought being involved. The conscious part of your personality in this theory is called your ego and the final part of your personality is called your super ego.
Trait theory is based upon the idea that all individuals have specific characteristics that well help decide how they behave in situations. Traits are generally stable aspects and some believe that traits are also inherited. There are two main dimensions to personality, the levels between introvert and extrovert and the levels between stable and neurotic. Introverts prefer calmness and environments where they can concentrate and dislike unexpected changes to their lifestyle. Extroverts however have poor concentration and much prefer change and exciting environments this leads some to believe it gives them an advantage in a sporting environment as playing sports can be a hectic environment. Stable individuals are easier going whilst neurotic individuals tend to be more restless. Some people believe that this is a too simplistic view and especially is a sporting environment there is not much to be gained in way of predicting success in a certain sport.
The situational approach theory believes that an individual’s behaviour is much more based on situation rather than pre-determined traits. This is in direct conflict with the trait theory and this theory is based around the fact that traits are of a much lesser importance then situation. This theory shows up in some sporting situations as introverted individuals who might display shyness in an ordinary situation can sometimes become very extroverted in an sporting scenario. One example of this could be Alistair Cook ;
Unit 17, P1, M1. Matthew Walker
Marten’s schematic view is a personality theory that says we have three different levels within our personality which are related to each other rather than the personality being one whole entity.
These three levels are the;
Role – related behaviour.
A sporting example of Marten’s schematic view in action could be Johnny Wilkinson.
The interactional approach is based on linking the trait theory and the situational approach together and considering both when trying to predict how each individual will react is certain situations which can be useful in sports. The Interactional approach backs up the idea that the situational approach holds a stronger sway than the trait theory when trying to predict how a sportsman will react to certain situations. Using this approach they can see that the athlete that tends to be quieter in everyday situations is more likely to celebrate dramatically after achieving success. One example of this is Paul Scholes;
Type A Personality
Sports psychology also believes that personality can be split up to two different types, type A and type B. People who fall under the type A personality tend to lack patience, are competitive minded, have a high motivation to reach targets set, will happily multi-task and rush to finish those tasks and also lack tolerance to other people. Type A can be seen as an ideal personality type by some people in the sporting world as it leads the people with it to be highly competitive and more determined to win then someone with a different personality type.
Type B Personality
On the other hand type B personalities tend to be more tolerant to other people, more relaxed and have the ability to be more reflective. They can also display high levels of imagination and creativity.
Athletes versus Non-Athletes
Research shows there is no belief in the fact that there is an “athletic personality” this does not mean however there are no differences between the personality traits of athletes and non-athletes. Athletes who play in team sports tend to be more extroverted, for example a group of rugby players versus a group of people who don't play any sport you would expect the group of rugby players to be the more extroverted group. This also means you have to take into consideration the sport the athletes plays when looking into comparisons of athletes versus non-athletes
Individual versus Team Sports
Individual and team sports also shows a split between type A and type B, type A who are generally more extroverted are drawn to team sports whilst individual sports tend to attract more type B personality athletes. This can be explained by the fact that individual sports include less interaction which can be more appealing for Type B personalities and type A personalities prefer fast paces team sports as they offer more excitement and stimulation.
Elite versus Non-Elite Athletes
There was a wide held belief that elite athletes would suffer from lower levels of depression, fatigue, confusion and anger. However the research this was based on was not from a large sample size and has since been widely dis-credited. Adding to the case against this research would be a string of high levels athletes coming out and announcing they are either suffering from depression or have suffered from depression, some examples are Ian Thorpe, Marcus Trescothick and Michael Yardy.
Type A versus Type B Athletes
Type A personalities are generally more expected in sports to continue taking part in sport when conditions are not ideal whilst type B personalities might leave the sport if they are facing difficult situations or lose some motivation to take part in their sport. An example of this could be playing in a football match if a player is sent off on your team you would expect the type A personalities to step up to the challenge whilst type B personalities might shy away from it.
From this presentation you can see the how personality and types of personality can affect sporting performance. It also shows how different athletes with different personalities will be drawn to specific sports.