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Chapter 19: The Persian Gulf and Interior

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Minnette Tafoya

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 19: The Persian Gulf and Interior

Chapter 19: The Persian Gulf and Interior
Section 1
Natural Environments
Natural Resources
Water, a Scarce Resource
Tigris and Euphrates are critical to Iraq.
Farmers in northern Iran depend on rain; others rely on irrigation.
Desert areas may have oases and wells.
Desalinization of seawater is possible for wealthy countries.

Oil, Plentiful and Valuable
Persian Gulf reserves are the world’s largest.
Iraq, Oman, and Yemen also have deposits.
Only Iran has substantial metallic ores.
There are few other resources in the region for developing industry.

Major Landforms and Rivers
Mountain Ranges
Hindu Kush
An Nafud
Section 2: History & Culture
Various peoples and empires have shaped history.
Sumerians built the first civilization and cities in the Fertile Crescent.
Akkadians created the first real empire in the area, around 2350 B.C.
Persians established a powerful empire around 550 B.C.
Greeks and Romans later controlled the region.
The rise of Islam had a major impact
Muhammad was born in Mecca
established his Muslim community centered at Medina.
Mongols arrived in the 1200s.
Safavid Persians built a flourishing empire in the 1500s.
Ottoman Turks also ruled the region in the 1500s.

Cultural Features
Islam is the unifying element.
Arabs are the major group in the region; Arabic is the main language.
Kurds live in borderlands of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.
Cultural diversity is more complex in Iran and Afghanistan.
Most Iranians are Persians
other Farsi-related groups include Baloch, Bakhtiari, and Hazara.
Turkic languages are spoken by the Turkmen, Azeri, and Qashqai.
Pashtun are the largest group in Afghanistan.
Section 2 Questions..please....
Section 1 Answers
1. Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen
2. The Middle East
3. Zagros, Elburz, Kopet-Dag, Hindu Kush
4. Tigris and Euphrates
5. a large desert of reddish sand
6. oil
7. water
8. The desalinization process can make freshwater from seawater.
Section 3: The Region Today
Urban Environments
Largest cities are the national capitals
Ancient cities
Old sections—Buildings one or two stories tall, twisting streets, bazaars, mosques
Newer sections—Modern buildings, wide avenues, traffic, high-rise apartments, fast-food outlets

Important Issues
Oil wealth—Can influence oil prices and affect economies world-wide, protect tradition, support governments, build military
Power and authority—Democracy versus control by a few
Role of Islam—Maintenance of Islamic traditions and laws

Section 2 Answers
9. Sumerians, Akkadians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Mongols, Ottoman Turks
10. It is an arc of productive land that may have given rise to the first civilizations
11. Sumerians
12. Muhammad
13. the Islamic holy book
14. Literature, architecture, and the arts flourished
15. Arabic
16. Farsi, Turkic languages, Pashtun
17. migration, trade, and the spread of Islam
18. Sunni-mainly lead prayers; Shia-interpret the Qur-an and other sacred texts, exercise political power in Iran
Section 3 Answers
19. Saudi Arabia
20. nomadic herders
21. practice subsistence farming, herding, traditional crafts
22. Tehran, Iran; Baghdad, Iraq; Kabul, Afghanistan; and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
23. oil wealth, desire to preserve the authority of traditional leaders, the role of Islam in a modernizing world
24. Tehran
25. because of the need for oil talkers to pass by its coast
26. seeking to gain control of oil-rich regions
27. Because of Iraq's refusal to allow UN inspections and violations of UN sanctions
Full transcript