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Impact of WWI on Brazil

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Stella Park

on 14 September 2014

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Transcript of Impact of WWI on Brazil

Before the War
Hague Convention (1899 & 1907)
Peace conferences
Goals were:
1) Reduce military budget through disarmament
2) Decrease war suffering (Baetens 1)
First adopted a neutral position
Was a major player in the Atlantic trading market (
Brazil Declares War on Germany
1).
Entrance into War
October 26,1917 Brazil declares war
Sides with Allied powers
Only country of Latin America to be directly involved in the war
Threatened by German's policy of unrestricted submarine warfare
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Protests against Participation
Many patriotic German immigrants in S. Brazil
reluctant to go in war against mother country
Protests erupted from the news of the sinking of Paraná
Marches with thousands of people were formed
beginning, was peaceful
later, attacked shops and properties of Germans and their descendents
Nature of Participation
Army
Navy
Medical
Works Cited
Baetens, Freya. "Hague Conferences (1899, 1907)."
Hague Conferences (1899, 1907).
Oxford Bibliographies Online: International Relations, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
Barman, Roderick. "Brazil in the First World War."
History Today
. History Today Ltd., 2014. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
"Brazil Declares War on Germany." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
Bruha, Patrick. "Brazilian Armed Forces."
The Brazil Business.
Fujikawa, 10 July 2014. Web. 12 Sept. 2014.
Campos, Cristiano, and Chris Dale. "Brazilian Uniforms in the First World War."
Brazilian Uniforms in the First World War - Uniformes Brazilian Na Primeira Guerra Mundial.
N.p., July 2004. Web. 10 Sept. 2014. <http://www.sacktrick.com/igu/brazilinthefirstworldwar/index.htm>
"Effects in the 18th/19th Century - 5 Effects of Industrialization."
Effects in the 18th/19th Century - 5 Effects of Industrialization
. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2014. <https://
sites.google.com/site/5effectsofindustrialization/effects-in-the-1800s-1900s>.
Genini, Ron. "Latin America in World War I."
Trenches on the Web.
N.p., 1997. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
"Impact of WWI on Latin America." N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2014. <http://martincannon.escuelacampoalegre.wikispaces.net/file/view/Reading+-+Impact+of+1WW+on+Latin
+America.pdf>.
"Map Gallery of Europe."
Maps of Western Europe.
N.p., 31 Jan. 2001. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://maps.unomaha.edu/peterson/funda/MapLinks/EuropeOverview/Maps.html>.
Simpson, Matt. "The Minor Powers During World War One - Brazil." FirstWorldWar.com. N.p., 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 9 Sept. 2014.
"WW1/WW2." Fall 2014 WW1WW2. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2014. <http://history105.libraries.wsu.edu/fall2014/2014/08/29/ww1ww2/>.
Verras, Francisco. "D.N.O.G.: contribuicao da Marinha Brasileira na Grande Guerra" ("DNOG; the role of Brazilian Navy in the Great War") (Portuguese)"A Noite" Ed. 1920. Print.
10 Sept. 2014.
Brazil
Impact of WWI on
Aftermath
Brazil at a Glance
Ships like the Minas Geraes were subject to attacks by German submarines.
May 3, 1916:
Brazilian merchant ship
Rio Branco
sunk by a German submarine --> It was not considered an illegal attack, but caused immense public uproar.
April 5, 1917:
Large Brazilian steamship
Paraná
, legally transporting coffee to neutral areas, torpedoed by a German submarine; 3 Brazilians killed.
May 20, 1917:
Ship
Tijuca
was torpedoed near the French coast by a German submarine.
July 27, 1917:
steamer
Lapa
hit by 3 torpedoes from a German submarine.
October 23, 1917:
Freighter
Macau
, seized in the war, torpedoed by German submarine.
Specific Protests
Participated in Versailles Peace Conference
Had 3 official delegates in Paris (
Brazil declares war on Germany
1)
one of the founders of Treaty of Versailles
allowed to keep 70 ships obtained from Central Power
Financially compensated by Germany that were destroyed by U-boat
Lauro Müller, Minister of Foreign Relations and from German origin, forced to resign
pro-neutrality position
Specific properties owned by Germans were looted, raided, and torched such as:
Hotel Schmidt
Germany Society
Club Deutsche Zeitung
Newspaper Turnerbund
November 1, 1917 Petropolis: clubs, factories, restaurant Brahma, Gesellchaft Germania, German school, company Arp, and the German Journal
raided and destroyed
April 11: German Minister von Pauli was expelled.
Brazilian Response
April 11, 1917:
Brazil broke diplomatic relations with Germany
May 1917:
In the following months, the Brazilian government seized 42 German merchant ships that were in Brazilian ports.
Source
:
Genini, Ron. "Latin America in World War I."
Trenches on the Web
. N.p., 1997. Web. 10 Sept. 2014.
Source:
"
The Brazilian Battleship "Minas Geraes"".
Scientific American
(New York: Munn & Co., Inc.) 102: 240–241. 19 March 1910.
Medical
August 18, 1918: Brazilian Medical Mission established
led by Dr. Nabuco Gouveia
directed by General Aché
86 doctors, civilian pharmacists, administrative support staff and a security platoon
September 24, 1918: Gave support to the French people against a flu outbreak.
February 1919: The Medical Mission was terminated.
Navy
Largest country in South America (Genini 1)
"Brazil was the only Latin American country to participate in a war beyond a symbolic declaration of war" (Winter 179).
Only Latin country to declare war on Germany in WWI (Genini 1)
Had important exports (coffee) that drove its economy and others' economies (Genini 1)
Army
Source:
“Brazil declares war on Germany .” 2014.
The History Channel
. Sep 11 2014, 2:23 http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/brazil-declares-war-on-germany.
Source:
Simpson, Matt. "The Minor Powers During World War One - Brazil."
First World War.com
. N.p., 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/minorpowers_brazil.htm>.
Source:
Simpson, Matt. "The Minor Powers During World War One - Brazil."
First World War.com
. N.p., 22 Aug. 2009. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. <http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/minorpowers_brazil.htm>.
Economic Standpoint
Exports of latex and coffee fell sharply
Created crisis in the economy
However
found good trading opportunities
Increased international demand for foodstuffs and raw materials
Stepped away from agricultural based economy
Industrialized: used immigrant labor, factories quadrupled, and decreased import items
Source:
Winter, J. M. "The Impact of the First World War on Civilian Health in Britain."
The Economic History Review
30.3 (1977): 487-507. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://martincannon.escuelacampoalegre.wikispaces.net/file/view/Reading+-+Impact+of+1WW+on+Latin+America.pdf>.
Source:
Winter, J. M. "The Impact of the First World War on Civilian Health in Britain."
The Economic History Review
30.3 (1977): 487-507. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://martincannon.escuelacampoalegre.wikispaces.net/file/view/Reading+-+Impact+of+1WW+on+Latin+America.pdf>.
Source:
Soule, Destry. "WW1/WW2."
Fall 2014 WW1WW2 Comments
. N.p., 29 Aug. 2014. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. <http://history105.libraries.wsu.edu/fall2014/2014/08/29/ww1ww2/>.
Brazilian army fought along Triple Entente
Mainly focused on the Atlantic campaign
Sent a small three groups to aid in land warfare (mid 1918)
Helped the Western Front and the French army (medical)
Source:
"Effects in the 18th/19th Century."
Effects in the 18th/19th Century.
N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. <https://sites.google.com/site/5effectsofindustrialization/effects-in-the-1800s-1900s>.
Source:
"Brazilian Armed Forces."
The Brazil Business
. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014
Source:
"Map Gallery of Europe."
Maps of Western Europe
. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. <http://maps.unomaha.edu/peterson/funda/MapLinks/EuropeOverview/Maps.html>.
Wanted to maintain trade relations for coffee and latex and manufactured items
Heavily depended on Britain for economy
Britain also invested a lot of money into Brazil and other Latin countries
Neutrality
Source:
Winter, J. M. "The Impact of the First World War on Civilian Health in Britain."
The Economic History Review
30.3 (1977): 487-507. Web. 11 Sept. 2014.
Source:
"World War 1 Anti German Riots."
Vet Friends.
N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014. <http://www.vetfriends.com/militarypics/large.cfm?picture=7411>.
Source:
Mano, Lucyanne. "A Morte De Lauro Müller."
Jornal Do Brasil
. N.p., 7 Mar. 2007. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. <http://www.jblog.com.br/hojenahistoria.php?itemid=9458>.
Source:
"Brazil's Flag." EnchantedLearning.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2014. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/southamerica/brazil/flag/>.
Provided strong navy
Main participation
Patrolled South African waters and mine sweepings on the Africa's west coast (Winter 179)
Anti-submarine campaign by Admiral Alexandre Faria de Alencar (Genini 1)
Ministerial Notice No. 501 on January 30, 1918
Established the Naval Division for War Operations
Naval fleets from Brazil's navy (Verras 1)
Source:
"Brazilian Armed Forces."
The Brazil Business
. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014
Source :
i125.photobucket.com/albums/p62/Comandante-Cobra/gran guerra/brazilmedicmission1
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