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Renaissance Overview

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Nancy Maletin

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of Renaissance Overview

Renaissance Art Urbanization Exploration Science & Technology Literature The Church Spiritual
Intellectual
Economic The Late Middle Ages The We saw great turmoil and change in Europe
in the 14th and 15th centuries Plague, famine, war, religious persecution By the end of the 15th century
there was a move towards a modern age A renewed interest in classicism, the invention of the printing press, advances in maritime technology,
desire to expand trade with Asia There was a new world view and the development of a capitalist economy ca. 1400-1600 Three important movements transformed Europe from medieval past towards future:
Renaissance redefined learning and how Europeans viewed themselves and the world
The Reformation divided Christians, questioned authority of the Church and led to new ideas about the relationship between Church and state
The emergence of a capitalist economy provided the impetus for exploration and colonialization Humanism "renaissance" means rebirth or revival Sistine Chapel David Henry VIII Rafael Machiavelli Michelangelo Leonardo da Vinci d' Medici Mona Lisa Erasmus Petrarch Gutenberg Christopher Columbus revival of trade and commerce during Late Middle Ages
newly wealthy merchant class or middle class
expansion of markets
new way of making money using money
by 1500s feudal economy replaced by capitalist economy
Rise of powerful banking families such as
the Medicis in Florence >in search for new wealth sponsored exploration and colonialization Rather than simply trading luxury goods,
merchants began searching for unprocessed materials that could be refined by European manufacturers Naval technologies, navigation
Printing press
Introduction of paper Johannes Gutenberg Combined technologies
movable type
oil-based ink
block-printing techniques
wine press
to create the modern printing press which had a dramatic impact on society ca. 1450 As wealthy middle class grew, cities grew
Rise of city-states in Italy
Wanted to display their wealth, so became patrons of the arts Reformation Martin Luther Faith alone will bring salvation
1517 he published his 95 Theses arguing against the sale of indulgences
Causes:
Anti-Clericalism
An appetite for spiritual experience
Reliance of church interpretation ended with return to original sources
Martin Luther's 95 Theses
A religious revolution that aimed to correct the “problems” of the Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant branches of Christianity
Counter Reformation Growing secularism and Humanism
Importance of the individual Reformation Counter Reformation & Actions taken by Catholic Church to counteract the impact of Protestant Reformation
Includes:
Council of Trent
Roman Inquisition
Index of Prohibited Books
Creation of religious orders e.g. Jesuits
Underlying philosophy that defined the Renaissance. From Latin term "humaniora" which means "human studies" or "the humanities"

Humanists embraced liberal arts: grammar,
rhetoric, poetry, history and philosophy

Differed from medieval predecessors in their
adherence to classical models and focus on
earthly actions and concerns of humans "Renaissance Man" Purpose of education was to produce well-rounded individuals
Believed studying classical writers built character
Students must develop both sound mind and body
Wanted to foster life-long learning
People should play an active role in society and help to further knowledge Francesco Petrarch Machiavelli Characteristics:
Cultured, educated in the classics
A gentleman, comfortable in battle or ballroom
A poet and artist; musical
Eloquent, witty
Intellect stressed over superiority by birth
Education 1304-1374 Italian scholar and poet
Referred to as first Humanist
Rejected many of medieval ideals
Emphasized earthly love
Questioned value of monastic life; believed clergy should work in society to save souls Author of "The Prince", 1513
A guide for governing that shocked people with its philosophy that the ends justifies the means
Wrote than an ideal ruler must unite people under a single, strong head of state
A ruler should not be an idealist nor a power-hungry autocrat, but should be prepared to resort to ruthlessness and deception if necessary to preserve the state


Glorified humans and put them at the centre of the universe
Painted portraits became very popular
Perspective rediscovered, allowing for greater realism
Influence of classical antiquity with renewed interest in depicting nudes
Focus on ideal human form: perfectability of humans Botticelli Michelangelo Da Vinci Painting Birth of Venus, 1482 One of the first female nudes of the Renaissance Sculpture Donatello Ghiberti Best known sculptor of early 15th C
David of 1430 was first nude sculpture of
the Renaissance and first life-size sculpture
of modern Europe Known for doors of Baptistry in Florence
Sculpted from 1425-1452 Both a painter and sculptor who fused classical style with Christian themes Epitome of the Renaissance man:
painter, sculptor, engineer Copernicus (1473–1543)
Shortly before 1514 he began to explore a shocking new idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun
He spent the rest of his life attempting a mathematical proof of heliocentrism
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