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CfE H Geography / Physical Geography: Biosphere - Revision
Transcript of CfE H Geography / Physical Geography: Biosphere - Revision
Coniferous needles produce a thin acidic humus due to slow decomposition in cold climate.
Ash/grey colour of A horizon due to greater rainfall and lack of organic material. Rainfall is greater than evaporation resulting in downward leaching of the minerals.
An iron pan develops in the illuviation zone in the upper B horizon as a result of the redeposition of iron and this can impede drainage, resulting in water logging and gleying in the B horizon.
The C horizon parent material is generally of weathered (fluvio) glacial material with a mixture of particle sizes and shapes.
There is limited bacterial activity caused by the cold climate which results in the slow formation and hence thin/shallow soil.
Due to the cold climate present for most of the year, there are few soil biota to vertically mix the soil, so the horizons are well defined.
Deciduous forest vegetation provides deep leaf litter, which is broken down rapidly in mild/warm climate.
Trees have roots which penetrate deep into the soil, ensuring the recycling of minerals back to the vegetation.
Soil biota break down leaf litter producing mildly acidic mull humus.
They also ensure the mixing of the soil, aerating it and preventing the formation of distinct layers within the soil.
Precipitation slightly exceeds evaporation, giving downward leaching of the most soluble minerals and the possibility of an iron pan forming, impeding drainage.
Parent material determines the rate of weathering, with hard rocks taking longer to weather, producing thinner soils.
well drained with through flow and little accumulation of excess water collecting, producing limited leaching.
Low temperatures lead to a slow rate of decomposition of organic matter creating a thin humus.
Plant roots do not penetrate deeply resulting in limited recycling of minerals back to the vegetation.
Anaerobic conditions means few organisms living in soil to burrow and tunnel through the soil.
Soil has a blue grey colour due anaerobic conditions.
The iron compounds are changed from red brown to blue due to oxygen being extracted by microorganisms.
Red mottling in small air pockets due to re-oxygenation of the iron in the soil due to burrowing animals/soil drying out in summer.
Impermeable clay impedes drainage and causes waterlogging. Found on flat surfaces such as plateau moorland or foot of slope means water cannot drain away.
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