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APA FORMAT & DOCUMENTATION

The following presentation outlines the general guidelines for formatting and documentation a paper in APA format.
by

TAMIU Writing Center

on 8 June 2016

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Transcript of APA FORMAT & DOCUMENTATION

Incorporating Sources inside body
apa title page
rEFERENCES PAGE
Abstract
Main Body
APA FORMAT & DOCUMENTATION
WHAT IS APA?
A typical apa paper will including the following: title page, Abstract, Main Body, in-text citations, and
references.
TITLE PAGE
Why do we use it?
Informs the reader if research is recent
Establishes if information is legitimate
Provides reader with additional info for further research
Provides credit to original author


ABSTRACT


REFERENCES
APA stands for American Psychological Association. This is a style/format used commonly in the social sciences: Criminal Science, Psychology, Communication, Sociology, Economics, Business Administration, or Education.
MAIN BODY
Must include:
Title of paper
Author’s name
Institutional Affiliation
Running Header
Page #

Title pages are
required
The title, author's name, and institutional affiliation are centered and appear in the upper half of the page
The words

Running head: TITLE OF PAPER
will appear flushed left in the header.
Page numbers are flushed right in the header.
Sample Title Page

The R in “Running” is capitalized but the H in “head” is not.

The title found in the running head is completely capitalized while the “normal” title, which is centered, only capitalizes key words.

The page number is found on the top right.

The title used in the running head is an shortened version of the actual title.

There is a 50 character max on the running head title.

NOTE:
the words “Running head:” will only appear on the title page. All subsequent pages will only have the capitalized title flushed left and the page number.

Page #
Title, author and institution
Must include:
Page header without “Running head:”
First line, center the word “Abstract”
Next line, without indentation, begin writing a concise summary with key points
Things to include:
Participants, key words, questions, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions

The abstract
always
follows the title page.
An abstract is concise summary of your paper that includes who participated in the research, key words and definitions, questions, results, data analysis, and conclusions.
Abstracts should be between
150 to 250 words
.

NOTE:
Depending on the assignment, abstracts may not be needed. Always check with your instructor for requirements.

Must Include:
Introduction
Thesis
Body Paragraphs
Conclusion



The main body will typically include references to sources and/or in-text/parenthetical citations
Typically, verbs should be presented in past tense or present perfect
Ex: claimed, argued, have spoken, have stated
Sample Main Body
TAMIU WRITING CENTER


Journals:

Books:

TV shows:

albums:

Films:

Web Sites:

Plays:

Long Poems:
American Journal of Psychology
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
How I Met Your Mother
The Avengers
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Romeo and Juliet
The Iliad
Major Titles
Titles of longer works, such as books, television series, films, or edited collections, need to be italicized.
Minor Titles
Journal Articles:

Book Chapters:

TV episodes:

Songs:

Short stories:

Short Poems:
"The Accuracy of Abstracts in Psychology Journals"
"Weasley's Wizard Wheezes"
"Slapsgiving"
For shorter works, such as poems, a single TV episode, or journal articles, use quotation marks around the title.

Note: Most poems are short.


The 20/20 Experience
"Suit & Tie"
"The Story of An Hour"
In-Text and Parenthetical Citations





Ex 1: “There is not a liberal America and a conservative America, only the United States of America” (Obama, 2012, p.714).

Ex 2: In America there are no sides towards liberalism or conservatism, only the unity of the states (Obama, 2012).

Must include:
Author
year
page #
CITING MID-SENTENCE
He found "students do not acquire APA citation proficiency until their fourth month of writing"
(Smith, 2011, p.714),
so expectations for freshman are low.

For these cases, the citation is placed after the direct quote, not necessarily at the the end of the sentence.
LONG QUOTATIONS
format:
must be A DIRECT QUOTE THAT IS 40+ words
DoES not use quotation marks
Must be double spaced
page # IN PARENTHESIS after period
BLOCKED OFF AFTER INTRODUCTION OF QUOTE

Long Quote Example


For long quotes, the quote is not placed inside quotation marks. Instead, it formatted into a
‘free-standing block’
with the
page number placed after
the end of the quote.
The
author and date
are identified before the quote with a complete statement, and a colon (:) is placed afterward. The block begins on a new line and is indented ½ inch from the left margin (one tab over).
The subsequent text starts flush left and is not indented.

INCORPORATING SOURCES
CITING INTERVIEWS
Personal communications (interviews) are not included on the References page. They only need to be cited in-text.

The words “personal communication” are not capitalized, and the interview month is not abbreviated. The format used is “month day, year.”

EXAMPLES:

In-text:
J. Smith described his students’ frustration with APA formatting (personal communication, January 1, 2011).

Parenthetical:
Students are easily frustrated when using APA format (J. Smith, personal communication, January 1, 2011).

Note: Do not cite interviews in reference page
Appears at the end of the paper
Provides reader with additional citation information
Allows reader to perform further research
“References” is centered on the first line
Do not use italics, underlining, or bold type face
Sources are arranged alphabetically by last name
Every line after the first in each citation should be indented ½ inch from the left margin
Double spaced

FORMAT
NOTE: The references page is the APA equivalent to MLA’s works cited.
AUTHORS
Always use surname first, then initial.
Example:
Smith, J. (2011). Student understanding of academic

writing.
Journal of English Education
,
7
(4), 700-725.
When listing two or more authors on the References page, separate names with a comma and use the ampersand (&) instead of “and”.

Example:
Lincoln, A., Jackson, A., & Washington, G. (1985). America

through history: A president’s opinion. Seattle, WA:

University of Seattle Press.


If there is no author, use the title in the author’s place.
TITLES
For books, chapters, articles, or Web pages capitalize only the first word of the title and the first word after a colon.

Example:

Smith, J. (2011). Student understanding of academic writing.


Journal of English Education, 7(4), 700-725.

Note the hanging indent, double spaced format.
Longer works like books or journals should be italicized.

Example:

Reifenberg, S. (2008).
Santiago’s children: What I

learned about life at an orphanage in Chile.


Austin,TX: University of Texas Press.

ART AND AUDIO
Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved from URL
Example:
EXAMPLE:



When citing an author
within the text
,
always
place his/her name followed by the year in parenthesis.

Include the page # at the end when
quoting
.
*The page # is
NOT
necessary when
summarizing or paraphrasing
or when referring to an idea or an entire book, article, or work.
If the author’s name is not provided in-text, it must be included in parentheses:
CITING WITH MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR
Name
both
authors in-text or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.
Use the word
"and"
between the authors' names
within
the text and use the
(&)
in the
parenthetical.

Research by Bartfeld
and
Myoung (2010) supported the importance to "to identify household and contextual factors that predict program participation" (p.174).



Research has shown the development of the important issues in program participation (Barfeld
&
Myound, 2010).
2 authors
Examples:
3-5 authors
List
all
the authors in–text or in parentheses the
first
time you cite the source:
In-text:
Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, and Harlow (2011)
Parenthetical:
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 2011)

Only list the
first author's last name
followed by
"et al."
in the signal phrase or in parentheses:
Kernis
et al.
(2011) found…
….(Kernis
et al.
, 2011).

In subsequent citations
,
The following format is used for first and subsequent citations:
In-text:
Thomas et al. (2011) believed that…
Parenthetical
: …(Thomas et al., 2011)

6 or more authors

PARAPHRASED
QUOTE


Example:
Researcher Smith (2011) claimed, “…” (p. 714).
DIRECT QUOTE
In instances where a direct quote is found mid-sentence, the citation is placed right after the quote and not at the end of the sentence. This avoids mixing personal analysis with ideas presented by other sources.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT QUOTES
Direct quote
parenthetical
"The Raven"
CITING ART AND AUDIO
painting, photographs, AND IMAGES
Westinghouse Electric Corporation. (2009). Lightning

model [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://

photography.nationalgeographiccom/photography/photo-of-the-

day/lightning-model-pod-best09/
In Figure 1, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation (2009) provided pathos to adhere to the viewer.

**Make sure to indicate the title or author corresponding to your references, in addition to the year. **
Figure 1: Lighting Model
must be:
Necessary to the paper
mentioned in text
clearly labeled
high resolution
Ex: (800 x 500)
file format accepted by all software
Example in text:

audio: video blog
for in text, use the author name (if only screen name is available use the full screen name) and year.
example: In-text
The Daily Conversation (2013) reported the White House Corresponding Dinner where Conan O'Brien mentioned how, "clearly Obama had his eyes set on the presidency since he was a child".
thedailyconversation. (2013, April 27). Conan O'Brien at the 2013

White House Correspondents' Dinner - Complete [Video File].

Retrieved from youtube.com/watch?v=15846358
YOUTUBE
ART
THANK YOU!
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956-326-2884
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"et al." means and others!
Updated: 6-18-2014
Full transcript