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APA FORMAT & DOCUMENTATION
Transcript of APA FORMAT & DOCUMENTATION
apa title page
APA FORMAT & DOCUMENTATION
WHAT IS APA?
A typical apa paper will including the following: title page, Abstract, Main Body, in-text citations, and
Why do we use it?
Informs the reader if research is recent
Establishes if information is legitimate
Provides reader with additional info for further research
Provides credit to original author
APA stands for American Psychological Association. This is a style/format used commonly in the social sciences: Criminal Science, Psychology, Communication, Sociology, Economics, Business Administration, or Education.
Title of paper
Title pages are
The title, author's name, and institutional affiliation are centered and appear in the upper half of the page
Running head: TITLE OF PAPER
will appear flushed left in the header.
Page numbers are flushed right in the header.
Sample Title Page
The R in “Running” is capitalized but the H in “head” is not.
The title found in the running head is completely capitalized while the “normal” title, which is centered, only capitalizes key words.
The page number is found on the top right.
The title used in the running head is an shortened version of the actual title.
There is a 50 character max on the running head title.
the words “Running head:” will only appear on the title page. All subsequent pages will only have the capitalized title flushed left and the page number.
Title, author and institution
Page header without “Running head:”
First line, center the word “Abstract”
Next line, without indentation, begin writing a concise summary with key points
Things to include:
Participants, key words, questions, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions
follows the title page.
An abstract is concise summary of your paper that includes who participated in the research, key words and definitions, questions, results, data analysis, and conclusions.
Abstracts should be between
150 to 250 words
Depending on the assignment, abstracts may not be needed. Always check with your instructor for requirements.
The main body will typically include references to sources and/or in-text/parenthetical citations
Typically, verbs should be presented in past tense or present perfect
Ex: claimed, argued, have spoken, have stated
Sample Main Body
TAMIU WRITING CENTER
American Journal of Psychology
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
How I Met Your Mother
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Romeo and Juliet
Titles of longer works, such as books, television series, films, or edited collections, need to be italicized.
"The Accuracy of Abstracts in Psychology Journals"
"Weasley's Wizard Wheezes"
For shorter works, such as poems, a single TV episode, or journal articles, use quotation marks around the title.
Note: Most poems are short.
The 20/20 Experience
"Suit & Tie"
"The Story of An Hour"
In-Text and Parenthetical Citations
Ex 1: “There is not a liberal America and a conservative America, only the United States of America” (Obama, 2012, p.714).
Ex 2: In America there are no sides towards liberalism or conservatism, only the unity of the states (Obama, 2012).
He found "students do not acquire APA citation proficiency until their fourth month of writing"
(Smith, 2011, p.714),
so expectations for freshman are low.
For these cases, the citation is placed after the direct quote, not necessarily at the the end of the sentence.
must be A DIRECT QUOTE THAT IS 40+ words
DoES not use quotation marks
Must be double spaced
page # IN PARENTHESIS after period
BLOCKED OFF AFTER INTRODUCTION OF QUOTE
Long Quote Example
For long quotes, the quote is not placed inside quotation marks. Instead, it formatted into a
page number placed after
the end of the quote.
author and date
are identified before the quote with a complete statement, and a colon (:) is placed afterward. The block begins on a new line and is indented ½ inch from the left margin (one tab over).
The subsequent text starts flush left and is not indented.
Personal communications (interviews) are not included on the References page. They only need to be cited in-text.
The words “personal communication” are not capitalized, and the interview month is not abbreviated. The format used is “month day, year.”
J. Smith described his students’ frustration with APA formatting (personal communication, January 1, 2011).
Students are easily frustrated when using APA format (J. Smith, personal communication, January 1, 2011).
Note: Do not cite interviews in reference page
Appears at the end of the paper
Provides reader with additional citation information
Allows reader to perform further research
“References” is centered on the first line
Do not use italics, underlining, or bold type face
Sources are arranged alphabetically by last name
Every line after the first in each citation should be indented ½ inch from the left margin
NOTE: The references page is the APA equivalent to MLA’s works cited.
Always use surname first, then initial.
Smith, J. (2011). Student understanding of academic
Journal of English Education
When listing two or more authors on the References page, separate names with a comma and use the ampersand (&) instead of “and”.
Lincoln, A., Jackson, A., & Washington, G. (1985). America
through history: A president’s opinion. Seattle, WA:
University of Seattle Press.
If there is no author, use the title in the author’s place.
For books, chapters, articles, or Web pages capitalize only the first word of the title and the first word after a colon.
Smith, J. (2011). Student understanding of academic writing.
Journal of English Education, 7(4), 700-725.
Note the hanging indent, double spaced format.
Longer works like books or journals should be italicized.
Reifenberg, S. (2008).
Santiago’s children: What I
learned about life at an orphanage in Chile.
Austin,TX: University of Texas Press.
ART AND AUDIO
Author (Role of Author). (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved from URL
When citing an author
within the text
place his/her name followed by the year in parenthesis.
Include the page # at the end when
*The page # is
summarizing or paraphrasing
or when referring to an idea or an entire book, article, or work.
If the author’s name is not provided in-text, it must be included in parentheses:
CITING WITH MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR
authors in-text or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.
Use the word
between the authors' names
the text and use the
Research by Bartfeld
Myoung (2010) supported the importance to "to identify household and contextual factors that predict program participation" (p.174).
Research has shown the development of the important issues in program participation (Barfeld
the authors in–text or in parentheses the
time you cite the source:
Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, and Harlow (2011)
(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 2011)
Only list the
first author's last name
in the signal phrase or in parentheses:
In subsequent citations
The following format is used for first and subsequent citations:
Thomas et al. (2011) believed that…
: …(Thomas et al., 2011)
6 or more authors
Researcher Smith (2011) claimed, “…” (p. 714).
In instances where a direct quote is found mid-sentence, the citation is placed right after the quote and not at the end of the sentence. This avoids mixing personal analysis with ideas presented by other sources.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT QUOTES
CITING ART AND AUDIO
painting, photographs, AND IMAGES
Westinghouse Electric Corporation. (2009). Lightning
model [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://
In Figure 1, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation (2009) provided pathos to adhere to the viewer.
**Make sure to indicate the title or author corresponding to your references, in addition to the year. **
Figure 1: Lighting Model
Necessary to the paper
mentioned in text
Ex: (800 x 500)
file format accepted by all software
Example in text:
audio: video blog
for in text, use the author name (if only screen name is available use the full screen name) and year.
The Daily Conversation (2013) reported the White House Corresponding Dinner where Conan O'Brien mentioned how, "clearly Obama had his eyes set on the presidency since he was a child".
thedailyconversation. (2013, April 27). Conan O'Brien at the 2013
White House Correspondents' Dinner - Complete [Video File].
Retrieved from youtube.com/watch?v=15846358
COME VISIT THE WRITING CENTER!
Billy F. Cowart Hall 203
"et al." means and others!