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Colour Deficiency

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by

Mariaye Vickery

on 24 March 2016

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Transcript of Colour Deficiency

Colour Deficiency
Eyes have three layers:
Outer
Middle
Third
Sclera
Choroid
Retina
Fovea
Macula
Light Source
Retina
Foveola
A membrane lined with photoreceptors that collects converging light and turns it into electrochemical signals to send through the optic nerve to the brain.
Optic Nerve
Small area at the center of the Retina that provides central vision.
The Retina surrounding the Macula controls peripheral vision.
The central point of the Macula.
The centre of the Fovia which has a high concentration of cone photoreceptors, but no rods.
Photoreceptors
are cells used to detect light.
There are two types of photoreceptors
in the retina that are used for sight.
These cells are known as
Rods
&
Cones
Both are needed for sight, but Cones are needed to see colour.
If Cones are damaged or deficient the result will be Colour Blindness or Defieciency.
Retina
The inside of the
Ganglion Cells
Nerve Fibres
Bipolar Cells
Synapsis (two homologous chromosomes) and Receptors
Pigmented Cells
Rods and Cones
X chromosomes are responsible for producing photopigments which are then used in Rods and Cones.
Most colour deficiencies are caused by the female X chromosome.
This makes colour deficiency a sex (X) linked dominant disease as it relies on X chromosomes to continue.
Colour Deficiency is a result of defective recessive genes being unable to produce these photopigments.
Carrier
Normal
Carrier
Affected
Normal
Normal
XX
XY
XY
XY
XX
XX
There is a
50%
chance of becoming a carrier or colour deficient when your mother is a carrier.
Mom and Dad
Children
7% of the world`s male population is colour deficient in some way.
While less than 1% of women show any signs of deficiency.
This is because if a woman receives a faulty X chromosome she has another X chromosome to help her. Since men have X and Y chromosomes they will have to use the X chromosome they have, deficient or not.
Colour Deficiencies are found world wide, but are most commonly found in Caucasians.
8-10%
5%
4%
And around every 13 people out 1000 are born with a colour deficiency.
The four main ways to categorize colour deficiencies are as follows:
Monochromacy
Normal Vision
Deuteranopia
Protanopia
Tritanopia
Red
Green
&
* Sensitive to light
green
Red
Green
&
* Sensitive to light
red
Blue
Yellow
&
Black
White
&
People are diagnosed, usually in their early childhood, with dot tests.
There are also tests for children who are not old enough to discern between numbers.
Colour Deficiency:
The inability to discern certain colours.
(Though is has been traced to other chromosomes as well.)
Full transcript