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Copy of Middle Ages
Transcript of Copy of Middle Ages
Also called "Medieval Ages" or "Dark Ages"
Broken into 3 periods:
Early, High, & Late Middle Ages
Starts after decline of Rome
What comes to mind when you think of
the Middle Ages?
Review: Fall of Rome
Feudal & Manorial Systems
Culture & Society
Spread of Islam
Late Middle Age Challenges
1. From Carolingian family who controlled the Franks
"Charles the Great"
2. Strong military leader
3. Friends with Pope Leo III who crowned him emperor of Rome
Grandfather was Charles Martel (political advisor & war leader for king)
Father was Pippin III (captured new lands for Franks)
When Lombard's attacked Papal States (region in Italy under pope's control), Charlemagne helped the pope
When pope is kicked out of Rome, Charlemagne brings him back
Pope crowns him as a "thank you"
As ruler he...
Establishes capital in Aachen
Records the Law
And then he dies.
where he builds huge palace & cathedral
officials who oversaw parts of empire
Wanted leaders to be able to read & write
Churches start schools that teach religion, music, grammar
Invited scholars from around Europe to teach & copy ancient texts
He's extremely religious
Wanted to unify Christian empire by conquering & converting
Honors oral law of territories, but they had to write law down & include Christian values
His gov't isn't strong enough without him
Regional kings emerge
Grandson's fought for power
and divide the empire
and invaders come.
Before - mostly foot soldiers in king's army
After invasions - couldn't rely on king's army, so built castles for protection
gives military service
gives land (fiefs)
fealty: promise between vassals & knights
Potential to be vassal & knight
Potential to serve 2 vassals
Serf vs. Peasants
Serfs: legally tied to manor
Peasants: had own land but provided labor to Lord in exchange for protection
Life in a Castle
Built for defense, not comfort
Latrines for wastes
Life in the Village
Small, dirt floor, straw roof
Kitchen - open fire in middle of floor
Growth of Monarchies
India & China
1. Explain the concept of cultural diffusion.
2.How does contact between civilizations lead to conflict ?
3. What are the economic consequences when civilizations clash?
rule by king/queen
page --> squire --> knight
Holy Roman Empire
Spain & Portugal
Led by Alfred the Great who drives Vikings out
Harold (Anglo-Saxon noble) and William (duke of Normandy) fight for power
BUT, William takes crown by force ("William the Conqueror")
Divides England into fiefs
Surveys population and puts info in
Introduces French culture to England
English in France
William's descendants inherit Normandy
Magna Carta (1215)
1st document to limit power of king
Influences Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence, Constitution, etc.
Council of King, nobility, clergy, & merchants meet to advise king
Becomes England's lawmaking body (influences US Congress)
Regions led by nobles after Charlemagne
In mid 900s,Hugh Capet (Capetian dynasty) rises to power &
936 BC Otto the Great rises to power
Pope John XII crowns him Holy Roman Emperor
Ruled by Muslims (called Moors by Christians)
Reconquista (Reconquest) - Christians fight Moors over territory
Territory united in 1492
Let's create a timeline
1. What are the Middle Ages?
2. What are the 3 parts of the Middle Ages?
3. Who became the leader of the Frankish Empire (hint: he was crowned by the pope)?
4. What 5 things did he do as emperor?
5. What happened to his empire after he died?
6. For each of the following, choose Magyars, Vikings, or Muslims:
Fierce horse back riders
Went after monasteries for $
Allowed religions to live together peacefully
Came from Africa (South)
Came from Scandinavia (North)
Came from Asia (East)
7. What is the difference between the manorial & feudal systems?
8. Explain the relationship between vassals & knights.
After Muhammad's Death
(Muhammad's close friend) and
(Bakr's successor) expand Islam quickly
Successors are called
and they rule
Abu Bakr vs. Ali (cousin of Muhammad)
Ali vs. Uthman (supported by Umayyad family)
Umayyad family is unpopular (was reluctant to convert to Islam, enemy of Muhammad)
Uthman is killed
Ali becomes caliph, but then he's killed
Umayyads win control
Umayyad caliph, Mu'awiya, calls supporters
(followers of the prophet), calls Ali's supporters
(party of Ali)
STILL fighting today
Arabic is official language
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
China, India, Africa, Spain
Spread Muslim faith
Conquered ppl rebel
Abbasid family unites rivals
Moves capital to Baghdad
Persian style gov't (Vizier, caliph segregated from public)
States break from caliph
Sunni Muslims rebel
Christians fight with Muslims (want Holy Land)
Family & Women
Men = head of home, had many wives
Qur'an says men/women equal under Allah
Women can seek divorce
Under Abbasid dynasty, women wore veil, segregated from men
Translated Ancient works
Astronomy & math - predicted lunar phases, used calendars
(finds position of stars, planets, used to calculate time of day)
Started Algebra & Trigonometry
wrote history of world, warned against basic errors like bias
Known for pharmacy & medical schools
Do not paint people/animals
Afraid of idol worship
Painted geometric and floral patterns
Used calligraphy (style of writing)
(domes and minaret towers)
1001 Nights (Arabian Nights) - about a woman who makes caliph fall in love with her so she won't be executed
series of wars between Christians & Muslims for control of the Holy Land
1st Crusade, 1096
Pope Urban II asks Christians to help Constantinople
Takes long, hard 3 years to get ther, but Christian crusaders take Jerusalem
"...Christians, hasten to help your brothers in the East, for they are being attacked. Arm for the rescue of Jerusalem under your captain Christ. Wear his cross as your badge. If you are killed your sins will be pardoned..."
2nd Crusade, 1144
Muslims recapture land over time
King Louis VII leads crusade
3rd Crusade, 1189
Between Saladin (Muslim) & King Richard the Lionhearted (Christian)
4th & Later Crusades, 1201
Disorganized, no strong leaders
Enhanced trade – brought back spices, textiles to Europe
Many knights, nobles died, leaving land vulnerable - king takes control, becomes more powerful
Relationship between Christians and Jews becomes strained
Muslim culture spreads
1. What is the difference between a serf and a peasant?
2. The economic system was organized with the _________ system in the Middle Ages.
3. What was the significance of the Magna Carta?
4. Decide if each of the following is England, Spain, France, or Holy Roman Empire:
a. Alfred the Great e. Ruled by Muslims
b. Capetian dynasty f. Modern day Germany
c. Leader crowned by pope g. Reconquista
d. Magna Carta h. William the Conqueror
5. Describe life in a castle.
6. How was life in a castle different than life in the village?
7. Describe the process of becoming a knight.
When you're finished, study for your quiz.
Rise of Middle Class
1. Describe the line of caliphs after Muhammad.
2. How did Islam spread under these caliphs?
3. What are some of the accomplishments of the Islamic culture?
4. What were the crusades?
5. Describe the events of the crusades.
6. What was the significance of the crusades?
beliefs that oppose the church
Usually questioned clergy/sacraments
Threatens social order of church
3 ways to fight it:
2. Education by friars
3. 21 years of Crusades against heretics (Pope Innocent)
Papacy in Dispute
Pope moves to Avignon
Also, a man in Rome claims papal power
Unresolved for 40 years
**Weakens church’s influence**
In 1328, French king dies without an heir
English nephew OR French cousin
Winner = French guy, King Philip VI of France
Edward invades France in 1337 starting Hundred Years’ War
England dominates due to better weapons
Joan of Arc
, French peasant who was told by God to lead French in to battle wins for French
Eventually caught by English and burned at the stake for heresy
**Significance: Better military tools & rise of nationalism**
Lancasters (red roses) vs. Yorks (white roses) for English throne
York's Edward IV takes throne in 1461
Edward’s brother, Richard III replaces him
Richard III challenged by Duke of Buckingham, killed in battle
Henry VII rises to throne to start Tudor dynasty
Married to Edward daughter & related to Lancasters
Hundred Years' War
War of the Roses
Bubonic plague – spread by fleas living on rats and other animals
Pneumonic plague – spread through the air from person to person
Symptoms: dark splotches, high fever, vomiting, headaches... death
25 million (1/3 of population) died in Europe
God must be punishing the sinful
Rise in witchcraft – magic might cure
Blame – usually the Jews, causing massacres and rise in anti-Semitics
Manorial system ends
Increased wages (less people available for employment)
Peasants moved to manufacturing jobs in cities
1. What started the Middle Ages?
2. What did Charlemagne do?
3. What groups invaded Europe after Charlemagne?
4. What were the Crusades?
5. What influence did the Crusades have?
6. What are guilds?
7. Who are Geoffrey Chaucer & Dante Alighieri? What did they write?
8. What 4 monarchies emerged during the Middle Ages?
Current Day Europe
Why is Charlemagne significant?
Restored glory of Roman Empire
Showed Charlemagne’s rule has backing of the church/god
From Northern Europe in Scandinavia (modern day Norway, Denmark, Sweden)
Rural, agricultural (fishers, farmers) –
but soil was not fertile
So what now???????
Make a Plan:
Vikings were great shipbuilders & sailors (ships carried 100 warriors)
Skilled at navigation
First raided England and France, later more western areas of Europe
Relentless – stories of ceaseless ships, massacres, torching, plunders
– monasteries (easy to capture, rich with treasure)
From the east (central Asia)
nomads, fierce warriors,
skilled on horseback
didn’t attack well-defended towns
just small settlements in order to loot
Eastern France, Germany, northern Italy, western Byzantine
Crushed by King Otto the Great of Germany
In 711, from northern Africa, rule Spain for 700 years
Cordoba (capital) became one of the wealthiest & most cultural advanced cities in Medieval world
Christians, Muslims, Jews live together peacefully (Religious Tolerance)
732, swept across Pyrenees into France, but stopped short at Battle of Tours
800s and 900s – Muslim leaders change strategy to small, fast raids in southern France & Italy
Included Rome (home of pope) – major blow
Also blocked Byzantine trade in Mediterranean
Knights - trained soldiers who fought on horseback with heavy armor
Expensive (weapons, armor, and horses)
Vassal received fief (land for services) from lord
Knights promised to provide military service (promise called fealty) and provide ransom if lord was captured
The earliest work of Anglo-Saxon literature
Page of the Domesday Book
His granddaughter marries French duke
Their son, Henry II inherits French lands
Henry marries Eleanor of Aquitaine ( she has french lands) will rule half of France and all of England
as king continued to grow and faced a rebellion by his nobles that forced him to sign the
King John was also known as King John the soft sword.
Italian City-States controlled trade in Southern Europe
The Hanseatic League controlled the Northern portion
Worked to promote and protect trade
Places to sell/buy goods not found locally
Held once a year near monasteries or towns
Statement that payment would be made later
Increased use of money and credit lead to the first banks
Religious laws prevented Christians from charging interest on loans
Most banks owned by Jews who were otherwise barred from most jobs
Craftsman began to organize themselves to controlled prices and their jobs and restrict competition
All members of a guild had the same occupation
Child who wanted to learn a craft/skill
Spent years learning from a master craftsperson
After they finished the apprenticeship they became journeyman
Traveled from workshop to workshop learning from many masters
Wrote: The Canterbury Tales
First use of the vernacular in literature
Vernacular: dialect/language of the common people
Wrote The Divine Comedy
Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso
Written in Italian
To concentrate control under a single authority
NOT Holy Grail!