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Projektas Projektas

on 16 May 2016

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Image by Tom Mooring
Culture of organisation
is the form of communication of people as well as values and attitudes. It is a natural, not specially formed culture, covering the whole organisation even though staff and management do not know anything about such existing culture.

Organisational culture
is the culture, consciously created by the management that can be distinctive from cultures of similar organisations. It unites strives of the staff to attain joint aims of the organisation.

After assessment of benefits the created culture can offer, the separate title was given – organisational culture, i.e. artificially developed culture for attaining some aims (Šimanskienė, 2002, 2014).

Robbins (2003), Drucker (1999), Collins (2001), Kouzes, Posner (2003) state that the culture of organisation can be not only
They also indicate the
spiritual culture
of organisation.

Organisations, supporting the spiritual culture of organisation admit that their staffs have intelligence as well as the spirit and they seek for the aim of meaning together with strives to cooperate and be a part of the community.
Features of spiritual organisations:

Attention to a personal development: organisation not only offers a job, but also seeks for its staff to learn, to develop;
Openness and trust;
Granting powers to staff: managers in spiritual organisations are not afraid of giving some power to staff because of the experienced trust that all staff members are behaving responsibly;
Development of the self-expression of staff: organisation enables people being themselves, i.e. expressing feelings, moods, not being afraid to be punished;
Solid sense of an aim – purposeful seeking for the aim: profit may be important, but the human being is the most important (Robbins, 2003, Dalin, 1999).
Weak culture
of organisation is the high rate of the staff change. Organisational values are not cherished

(Robbins, 2003).
Strong culture
of organisation – low rate of the staff change. The strong culture can be characterised by the fact that the main values of organisation are cherished and recognised. Strong culture has a greater effect on the behaviour of the members of organisation, because values they cherish and widely recognise develop the internal climate of the strict behaviour control. Members of a strong organisational culture agree concerning its aims. The unity of these aims develops a harmony, loyalty and devotion to organisation
(Robbins, 2003).
Ethical culture
of organisation is such a culture where the risk is highly tolerated, management is looking for novelties, attention is given to facts how aims are reached and what are they on the whole.

Features of the culture of ethical organisation:
Behaviour of the supreme management is the reference point for the staff. More ethical behaviour of the supreme management gives a positive signal to all members of staff – a head of a company shows an example of behaviour;
Organisation has a Code of Ethics where the main values of organisation as well as rules of ethics are presented and all staff members are to follow it;
Seminars, trainings on the issue of ethics are organised and are used for consolidation of standards of behaviour of organisation;
Ethical behaviour is encouraged and non-ethical is penal;Organisation has protective formal mechanisms, allowing staff to discuss ethical problems
Commission of Ethics, advisers) (Robbins, 2003).

Spiritual culture
of organisation: spirituality at work does not mean that some religion is practiced; no God or theology is included. Spirituality at work is the recognition that all people have an internal life that encourages the meaningful work, happening within the context of community

(Robbins, 2003).
It is possible to state that for the organisation to become ethical, spiritual, it must be aware of the direction to be taken and actions to be done – it can be attained together with learning.
Learning organisation
is the organisation, changing and developing within the base of the contemporary knowledge.
Therefore features of the
learning organisation
become important:

• Staff should be learning constantly;
• Staff should perceive the importance of novelties;
• Staff should accept each task as the possibility for learning;
• Managers should encourage the learning of staff;
• Managers should develop systems of supporting the learning;
• Managers should ensure the learning on all levels within the organisation;
• Managers should be able to eliminate obstacles for learning;
• Organisation is to learn from success and failures;
• Organisation is to apply the learnt issues.

(Sakalas, 2012, Drucker, 1992, Geisler, 2009).

Only a learning organisation is able to perceive that its culture may be strong as well as ethical, spiritual. It is possible to state that an organisation, when learning,
novelties within organisation for the sake of the selected organisational culture and therefore it becomes
an intellectual
organisation with the base – the educated person – the employee.
The main feature of the
learning organisation
is the application of innovations within the organisation; in case it does not exist the organisation is not a learning organisation
(Sakalas, 2012).
An intellectual
is an educated person.

(Contemporary Dictionary of the Lithuanian Language, 2010).
“To learn and not to do is really not to learn. To know and not to do is really not to know. Speaking other words, to understand and not to do is really not to understand”
(Covey, 2007).
And where is the problem?

According to Covey (2007), there are creative and enthusiastic people engaged to one’s work, but unfortunately they compose the minor part, because heads of organisations do not try to form favourable premises for the maximum revelation of their skills and knowledge.

For the majority of employees the work does not give satisfaction, because management restricts the potential of a person by applying
an Industrial Age Management Model
Therefore, the organisation cannot become intellectual if the application of knowledge is not available (the feature of a learning organisation) and if staff does not feel the meaningfulness of the work/ aim (feature of the spiritual organisation).

It is possible to state that the member of intellectual organisation is learning by knowing that he/she will have possibilities to realise oneself by a meaningful application of knowledge and skills in the own organisation.

In order to achieve this, a head of a company must reject an Industrial Age Management Model and is to pass to the context of an innovative philosophy/ paradigm. Covey (2007), Goleman (2008, 2009) define
4 types
of intellect/ skills:
Industrial Age Management Model
– the main provision is linked with the constant control of the employee and his/ her creative potential is not important, because he/ she is the developer – a person becomes a thing (Covey, 2007).
1. Mental intellect (IQ) – mental abilities;
2. Physical intellect (PQ) – healthy body, health;
3. Spiritual intellect (SQ) – values/ search for the meaning of life;
4. Emotional intellect (EQ) – social sensitivity, enthusiasm.
the problem is linked not with staff, but with a personality of a head of a company as well as his/ her attitude towards oneself. Head of a company must seek for intellectuality by the own behaviour, i.e. he/ she must be intellectual. This means that his/ her philosophical paradigm is linked with a sincere strive for knowledge, i.e. constant development (attention to the mental intellect), trust on the actions taken, perception of a meaning of work (attention to the spiritual intellect); upon perceiving the aim of activity it is possible to attain it with the enthusiasm (attention to the emotional intellect).

The base of all intellects
– health (physical intellect) and this is to be reflected in the content of values of a healthy lifestyle demonstrated by a head of a company.

Implementation of philosophical paradigms by a head of a company, together with the discussed content is the essential precondition for the transformation of organisation to intellectual organisation.

In order to identify if the organisation is intellectual, it is necessary to identify features of the philosophical paradigm, applied by a head of a company:

A human being is not a thing (not only a developer, but also a creative personality).
Conditions for revealing skills of an employee.
Development of four types of intellect/ skills.
1. Collins, J.(2001) Good to great. New York.
2. Covey, S.R. (2007) 8-asis įprotis. Tobulybės link. Vilnius
3. Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas (2010). Vinius.
4. Dalin, P., Rolf, H.G., Kleekamp, B. (1999) Mokyklos kultūros kaita. Vilnius.
5. Drucker, P.F. (1999) Management Challenges for the 21st century. New York.
6. Drucker, P.F. (1992) Managing for the Future. New York.
7. Kouzes, J.M., Posner,B. Z. (2003) Iššūkis vadybai. Kaunas.
8. Geisler, E., Wickramasinghe, N. (2009) Principles of knowledge management: theory, practicles and cases. New York.
9. Goleman, D. (2009) Emocinis intelektas.Vilnius.
10. Goleman, D. (2008) Emocinis intelektas darbe. Vilnius.
11. Robbins, O.P. (2003) Organizacinės elgsenos pagrindai.Vilnius.
12. Sakalas, A. (2012) Žinių vadyba: besimokančios įmonės kūrimas. Kaunas.
13. Šimanskienė, L. (2002) Organizacinės kultūros formavimas. Klaipėda.
14. Šimanskienė, L., Župerkienė, E. (2014) Darnus vadovavimas. Klaipėda.
Speaking of an intellectual organisation, the
culture of organisation
becomes important that has an effect on the behaviour of an employee.
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