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"Structure & Style" Day 2 - Structure

Compositional Architecture
by

Ben Jones

on 5 August 2014

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Transcript of "Structure & Style" Day 2 - Structure

Three-part (or Ternary) Song Form [ABA]
third part is not actually a different part but is a restatement, exact or somewhat modified, of Part I.
"The distinctive feature of the ternary pattern is the element of restatement or return. It is in this respect that musical forms differ most markedly from literary forms. With the exception of certain poems in which a refrain occurs, most poems, stories and plays proceed by continuous progression. In a book or a play, for example, Chapter 10 or Act III is never a restatement of Chapter 1 or Act I. On the other hand, the reutilization of a figure, motive, or theme, either in immediate succession or in some established order, is one of the essential aspects of musical construction."
-Stein (p. 69)
Two-part Song Form
smallest example of binary structure
composed of two balancing divisions that are structurally analogous to the units which are combined to form larger patterns:
figure+figure = motive
motive+motive = semi-phrase
semi-phrase+semi-phrase = phrase
phrase+phrase = period
period+period = double-period
Counterpoint
the combination of two or more rhythmically and melodically distinctive parts
derived from the Latin "punctus contra punctum," or "point against point")
first documentary evidence we have is in a 9th-C. treatise, "Musica Enchiriadis," or "Handbook of Music"
Counterpoint devices:
Sequence–the recurrence of a pattern on successively different degrees of the scale in the same voice
Imitation–the recurrence of a motive in a second voice immediately after its occurence in the first (Imitation is STRICT when it adheres exactly to the intervallic and rhythmic relationships of the first statement; FREE when it does not)
Repetition–the immediate recurrence of a motive in the same voice or voices
Augmentation–the multiplication in uniform ratio of the time value of each note and rest of a give motive or theme
Diminution–the reduction in uniform ratio of the time value of each note and rest of a given motive or theme
Retrograde–the reproduction of a motive in reverse order
Contrary motion–the consistent reversal in melodic direction of the tone successions of a motive
Inverted counterpoint–the mutual inversion of parts, so that the upper part becomes the lower and vice versa
Pedal point–the use of a tone of some length, usually in the bass but also possible in an inner or upper part, which is prolonged against changing harmonies (also known as BOURDON or DRONE)
Change of mode–in tonal music, the recurrence of a minor motive in major or vice versa
Transposition–the recurrence of a section or a portion of a section in a new key
Stretto–an overlapping imitation, occuring when the second voice begins a motive before the first voice has completed its statement
"Order gave each thing view."
-Shakespeare
Structure:
Compositional Architecture
*forms we won't cover: Trio, Rondo, Variation, Sonatine, Sonata-Allegro, Canon, Invention, Fugue, Ostinato, Ground Motive, Ground Bass, Passacaglia, Chaconne, Toccata, Chorale Prelude, Sonata, Suite, Concerto Grosso, Solo Concerto, Overture
...and other hits
Period Form
Two- & Three-Part
Song Forms

Antecedent Phrase
Half Cadence
Consequent Phrase
Authentic Cadence
Counterpoint
Period (or Sentence) Form
mostly found in music of the "tonal era" (1600-1900)
consists of two phrases - the antecedent & the consequent
(Harmony History)
Idiom

Chronology

Consonance
Modal
800 1400 1600 1900
Tonal
Unison
Fourth
Fifth
Octave
Triadic music

Addition of consonant
3rd and 6th
Duodecuple [12-tone] - Schoenberg
Neo-modal - Bruckner
Polytonal - Mozart, Ives, Bartok, Stravinsky
Pan-diatonic - Adams, Copland, Reich
Non-triadic music

"Emancipation of dissonance"
A Brief Overview of the History of Harmony
Antecedent phrase:
interrogative in character
usually terminated by a "non-final," or half, cadence

Consequent phrase:
responsive in character
with few exceptions, usually terminated by a cadence more conclusive than that at the end of the antecedent phrase
The Parallel Period
the melodic line of the consequent phrase is similar to that of the antecedent phrase
(the similarity is usually in the beginning of the respective phrases, unlike in poetry, where rhymes occur at the end of successive or alternate lines)
At most, the whole of the consequent may resemble the antecedent – up to but not including the cadence. Should a whole phrase be repeated with the same cadence, the structure is a repeated phrase and not period form.
Ways in which the consequent phrase may resemble or derive from the antecedent phrase:
by identity
by transposition
by embellishment
by contour similarity
The Contrasting Period
the direction of the melodic line in the consequent phrase differs from the direction of the melodic line in the antecedent phrase
the rhythm in both phrases may be similar or even identical
Enlargements and Combinations of Period Form
extension of the phrase
repetition of the antecedent phrase
repetition of the consequent phrase
repetition of the antecedent & consequent
repetition of the period as a whole
the phrase group
the double period
extensions of the double period
the period group
Simple two-part song form
Part I:
may be from a phrase to a double-period in length
cadence at the end of part I may be:
1. authentic, in the tonic of the dominant
2. authentic, in the tonic of a related key
3. a half-cadence on the dominant
4. authentic, in the original tonic
Part II:
may also be from a phrase to a double-period in length
may be in the same key as Part I or in a related key
final cadence is usually authentic in the original tonic

Very often Parts I & II are identical in length; if not, Part II is generally longer.
Full transcript