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ICT Form 5 : Programming
Transcript of ICT Form 5 : Programming
Machine language is a set of instructions and data (written in binary code) that a computer's can execute directly. Example : Machine language Second Generation – 2GL Def :
Assembly language is the human-readable notation for the machine language used to control specific computer operations. Example : Assembly Language Third Generation language Def :
Procedural language uses a series of English-like words, that are closer to human language, to write instructions. Examples : PASCAL, FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, C, ADA Fourth Generation Language – 4GL Def :
Non-procedural language, enables users to access data in a database. Examples : SQL, NOMAD and Focus Fifth Generation Language – 5GL Def :
Provides a visual or graphical interface, (visual programming environment)
Allows people to interact with computers without needing any specialized knowledge. Examples : Prolog and Mercury STRUCTURED
PROGRAMMING OBJECT-ORIENTED Programming Language Approaches Uses a top
down design model means that the whole program is broken down into smaller sections that are known as modules.
Ada, Pascal and Fortran Refers to a special type of programming approach that combines data with functions to create objects.
C++ and Java are complete object-oriented languages Object Oriented
Programming Uses a top-down design model-. The whole program is broken down into smaller section that are known as modules.
Always use for organizing and coding computer programs which employ a hierarchy of modules.
Control is passed only through the hierarchy.
Eg: Ada, Pascal, Fotran Uses objects
Combines data with functions to create objects.
Every object has relationship with one another.
Eg: Smalltalk,Java, Visual Basic, C++ Different Translator Assembler Low Level Language Machine Code Interpreter High Level Language Machine Code Compiler High Level Language Object Code Machine Code An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language — essentially, a mnemonic representation of machine language — into machine language.
Example : MACRO-80 Assembler and Microsoft MASM Interpreter is used to interpret and execute program directly from its source without compiling it first.
Example: BASIC, Logo and Smalltalk. Basic Elements in Programming Constants Value is not changeable during the course of the program Use constant when you want to declare something that won’t change midway in your program execution. Data Type Boolean Integer Double Boolean
Date Consists either a True or False value.
Programmers usually use it to store status. Contains any whole number value that does not have any fractional part. Const year_birth = 1998
Dim age As Integer
Age = 17 Any number value that may and could contain a fractional part. Const PI = 3.142
Dim Marks As Double
Marks = 60.5 Variable Value can be changed anytime during the course of the program Use variable to store data that may or will change during the running of the program. String contains a sequence of characters Const Name = CHOO
Dim Address As String
Address = Kuala Lumpur Date Contain date and time value Example: 7/8/91, 12:28 AM Matematicals Logical Relational (Comparison) Mathematical operators perform mathematical operations such as plus or substract Logical operators perform logical operations such as checking the condition of two Boolean values. Relational operators perform element-by-element comparisons between two arrays (elements). Differentiate between mathematical and logical (Boolean) operators. + , - , * , / AND, OR , NOT =, <, > , < > , <= , >= Differentiate between sequence control structure and selection control structure DESIGN PHASE PROBLEM ANALYSIS PHASE CODING PHASE TESTING AND DEBUGGING PHASE DOCUMENTATION PHASE Program Development Phases The programmer will interview the client to find out what the client’s needs are. Identify input, processing, output and data component. Ask expert,refer to book and website. Meet with the system analyst and user.
For example, the client might be a school that wishes to set up a school registration program. So the school administrator might tell the programmer that they need to record students’ data such as name, date of birth, gender, class, parents’ names, address and contact numbers. Pseudo Code Flow Chart The programmer will divide all program activities into program modules Create solution algorithm for each program modules Write an outline of the logic(pseudo code) of the program. Design a flow chart. Design user interface Translating the algorithm into programming language.(usually on paper) After finishing the coding process, the programmer will type the programming language code into the computer.(eg.Pascal,C++ and Visual Basic) Is to ensure the program runs correctly without any syntax or logic errors. If errors are uncovered during testing, the programmer will proceed to debugging. Debugging involves tracing the source of errors in the program and making the necessary corrections. Documentation refers to the written material generated throughout all the phases of program development. Thus documentation includes the detailed problem definition, the program plan (flow chart or pseudo code), comments within the source program and testing procedures. A detailed description of the program, clear layouts of input and output records and a program listing. Created by :
Cikgu Norm SuperB (http://cikgunormie.blogspot.com)