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Complex Sentences (ENGL 200)

Adapted from Writing Made Easy 5th Edition. Covers Chapter 20.
by

Melissa A.

on 26 September 2016

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Transcript of Complex Sentences (ENGL 200)

Chapter 20 (p. 359 - 370)
Complex Sentences
Dependent Clauses
Complex Sentences
What happened because the exhibit was controversial? You need to add an independent clause to your dependent clause in order to complete your thought:

Because the exhibit was controversial,
many people came to see it.
1 independent clause
+
1 or more dependent clauses
=
Complex Sentence

Review
What is a simple sentence?

What is a compound sentence?

What is a coordinating conjunction?
What kind of punctuation do you use with a transitional word or phrase?
Review
Review
What kind of punctuation do you use with coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS)?
Review
What is the difference between a pronoun and a proper noun?
I am not fond of snakes, ___ I like spiders even less.
Which coordinating conjunction can you use?
What's the 1st independent clause?
What's the subject in the 2nd independent clause?
Are there any prepositional phrases?
Anne wedged her handbag under her arm, for she was afraid of muggers.
What's the verb in the 1st independent clause?
What's the 2nd independent clause?
What's the subject in the 2nd independent clause?
Are there any prepositional phrases?
Practice 20-2, p. 361
Independent Clause (IC)
or
Dependent Clause (DC)?
An
independent clause
can
stand alone as a sentence:
The exhibit was controversial.

A
dependent clause
cannot
stand alone as a sentence:
Because the exhibit was controversial.
Subordinating Conjunctions
One way to create a complex sentence is to use a subordinating conjunction, words such as "although" and "because."
Frequently Used
Subordinating Conjunctions
after
although
as
as if
as though because
before
even if
even though
if
if only
in order that
now that
once
provided that
rather than
since
so that
than
that
though
unless
until
when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
whether
while
p. 362
Muhammad Ali was stripped of his heavyweight title for refusing to go into the army. Many people admired his antiwar position.
Although Muhammad Ali was stripped of his heavyweight title for refusing to go into the army, many people admired his antiwar position.
Complex Sentence:
subordinating
Conjunctions
Show Relationships
Time:
after, before, since,
until, when, whenever, while
Reason or Cause:
as, because
Result or Effect:
in order that, so that
Contrast:
although, even though, though
Location:
where, wherever
Condition:
even if, if, unless
When the whale surfaced, Ahab threw the harpoon.
Scientists scaled back the project because the government cut funds.
So that students' math scores will improve, many schools have begun special programs.
The rain forest may disappear unless steps are taken immediately.
Although Thomas Edison had almost no formal education, he was a successful inventor.
Pittsburgh was built where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet.
Punctuating with
Subordinating Conjunctions
Use a comma after a dependent clause:
Although she wore the scarlet letter, Hester carried herself proudly.
Don't use a comma after an independent clause:
Hester carried herself proudly although she wore the scarlet letter.
Practice 20-3
p. 363-364
Choose the most appropriate subordinating conjunction.
What is
a pronoun?
Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns (words such as who, which, etc.) can also be used to form complex sentences.

Use them to join two simple sentences.
Relative Pronouns
p. 365
that
what
which
who
whoever
whom
whomever
whose
Harry Potter is an adolescent wizard. He attends Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.
Using Relative Pronouns
Harry Potter, who attends Hogwarts School of Wizardry, is an adolescent wizard.
Complex Sentence:
Relative pronouns indicate the relationships between the ideas.

The relative pronoun always refers to a word or words in the independent clause.
Nadine Gordimer comes from South Africa. She won the Nobel Prize in 1991.
Transistors have replaced vacuum tubes in radios and televisions. They were invented in 1948.
Complex Sentence:
Nadine Gordimer, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1991, comes from South Africa.
Last week I had a job interview. It went very well.
Complex Sentence:
Last week I had an interview that went very well.
Complex Sentence:
Transistors, which were invented in 1948, have replaced vacuum tubes in radios and televisions.
Practice 20-5

Underline the dependent clause once, and underline the relative pronoun twice. Then draw an arrow from the relative pronoun to the word or words to which it refers.
Review
What is an independent clause?
Independent Clause:
(a.k.a. simple sentence)
- has a subject
- has a verb
- makes sense
What is a dependent clause?
Dependent Clause:
A clause that can't stand alone as a sentence even if it has a subject and verb (because it doesn't make sense)
What is a
complex sentence?
Complex Sentence =
1 independent clause
+
1 or more dependent clauses
What does a subordinating conjunction do?
A subordinating conjunction...
- Joins two independent clauses to
form a complex sentence

- Indicates the relationship between
them
True or False?
You do not need a comma after a dependent clause.
False.
If the dependent clause is at the beginning of a sentence, you need to use a comma.
You do not need to use a comma if your dependent clause is at the end of your sentence.
Pronoun: takes the place of a noun (he, she, it, they, etc.)

Proper Noun: is the name of a specific noun (South Texas College, X-Men, New York City, etc.)
I love pizza; however, I love chocolate more.
I love pizza, but I love chocolate more.
Practice 20-6 (p. 367)

Collaborative Activity #1 (p.369)
Group Work
A pronoun takes the place of a noun (he, she, it, they, them, etc.)
Simple Sentence:
(a.k.a independent clause)
- has a subject
- has a verb
- makes sense
Compound Sentence:
Two independent clauses joined together by a coordinating conjunction or a transitional word or phrase
Coordinating Conjunctions:
FANBOYS
for, and, nor, or, but, yet, so
Full transcript