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Unit 1: Religion & Life

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david Ratsakatika

on 16 March 2017

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Transcript of Unit 1: Religion & Life

Unit 1
Religion & Life

Marriage and the Family
Religion and Community Cohesion
The Causation Argument
The causation argument tries to prove the existence of God by showing that everything happens for a reason. This leads some people to believe in God.


Unit 1: Religion & life
Sections within Unit 1
Section 1: Believing in God

Section 2: Matters of life and death

Section 3: Marriage and the family


Section 4: Religion and community cohension
Learning facts is only part of the battle.

You need to arrange your thoughts on paper and

make sure you answer the question.

It is not all about facts

There are masses of resources available online:

- BBC Bitesize - http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/subjects/zb48q6f

https://tkchum.wordpress.com/

https://repshce.wordpress.com/

Youtube - MrMcmillan - https://www.youtube.com/results?q=Mr+Mcmillan

Prezi for Unit 1 and Unit 8 (TBA) - Both will be sent to you
Listen to podcasts

Record the information onto your iThingy or your phone.

Play it back when you are going to sleep.

Read out loud

All around your house – on your bedroom wall etc

Use post it notes

Write lists –

Use colour

Different pens / paper

Lists

Snap

Pelmanism

Pairs

Internet games

Games

Or try:

Rhymes

Songs





Mnemonics

Mind Maps

Everyone is different and so you all have different things that work for you.

It isn’t always a good idea to write out all of your notes all over again.

There are so many things you can try:

How can I revise then?

Find out exactly what you need to know!

Past Test Papers will tell you what you need to know

Mark schemes will show you what the examiners are looking for ( http://qualifications.pearson.com/en/support/support-topics/exams/past-papers.html )

Your revision folders have three revision guides with all the information you need to know

Third rule of revision

Help! I don’t know how to revise!

How to Revise

Talking about it can help.

Have a pizza, turn on some music and have a revision party.

It might be sad but it might make the difference.

Talk to your friends

Go through your existing notes with a highlighter or in you revision guide

This way your attention is drawn to important bits.

Highlight Notes

Write a keyword on a card using your textbook for cues.

Read the relevant part of the textbook.

Come back to your cards and try to write notes on them (this tests your memory)

You can then flick through the cards to help you remember.

Revision Cards

Plan your revision. There’s no point in trying to cram too much in.

You know when your exam is. What will you need to cover by that date?

Final Rule:

Do not take the easy option and go over things that you already know.

This might make you feel better (and boost your confidence) but actually is of no benefit.

Second rule of revision

Don’t worry

Worrying will put you off and stop you from doing anything at all

GCSE's are challenging, it's impossible to achieve without putting in the time

The first rule of revision:

It is to remember things

The best way to remember is through cues

A cue is something that you associate with something else

What is the point of revision?

Revision Styles

Section 1
- Mind maps, worksheets,
Revision guide, make notes and
end game
- University Challenge

Section 2
- Post-it notes, mind maps, spider diagrams, worksheets, A Question of Sport game, Jeremy Kyle production and
end game
- The Chase

Section 3
- Distilling notes from Revision Videos, Exam Questions and end games - Speed Dating

Section 4
-

Flow charts, mind maps, worksheets
A
,B,C game,
p
eer led lessons and end game
- Home and Away

The Big Bang Theory
The main scientific explanation for the origins of the world is The Big Bang Theory. Evolution and Natural Selection explain the origin of the species. These lead some people to believe there is no God.

Can you explain the scientific explanations

'Big Bang Theory'

Evolution

Natural Selection





Unanswered Prayers
Unanswered prayers may be lead some people to question whether there is a God










Introduction
People hold different views about God and it is important to understand the reasons why this is

Do you know the answers to the following questions

What do Christians believe?

Why do atheist not believe in God?

Why are some people agnostic?



Design Argument
The
Design Argument
tries to prove the
existence of God by arguing that the universe was designed.










Evil and Suffering
Evil and suffering cause a problem for people who believe in God. Some of them may stop believing in God.










Believing in God
Spider Diagrams

Religious upbringing
Many people believe in God because of the way in which they have been brought up

The main reasons why Christian families raise their children to believe in God is because they believe:

It is their duty to marry, have a family and raise their children within the Christian faith

Christians believe their religion gives children a secure basis and helps them through difficulties










Religious Experience
Some people believe in God because they have had a religious experience which convinces them that God exists.

Can you give examples four main types of religious experiences

1 - Numinous experience

2 - Conversation

3 - Prayer

4 - Miracles
Having religious ceremonies

Sunday school /faith school education

Attending Church

Being taught prayers

Influence of parents

Being Baptised

A Christian upbringing
might include…

What are the main features of a Christian upbringing?

Thinking Hard
Paley’s watch argument

How does the appearance of design lead to a belief in God?

It must have had a ‘DESIGNER’.

You notice how complex it is. It could not have happened by chance/accident.

Walking through the hills you come across a watch.

The universe is far more
complicated than a watch. If a watch has a designer then surely the universe has.

The only thing powerful enough to make the universe is God…

SO… God must exist.

Causation

Arguments for the existence of God…

The idea that everything has been caused (started off) by something else. Only God is powerful enough to have started the universe.

Causation

Key Words

Science shows that any effect has a cause and any cause has an effect.

Cause and effect is a basic feature of the world. Everything we do has an effect.

Think of a line of dominoes. How do you get the last one to move without touching it?

It was made famous by St Thomas Aqunias.

This theory is often called the First Cause Argument.

How does causation in the world lead to a belief in God?

Only possible First Cause of the universe is God, so God must exist.

Can’t keep going back forever. Must be a First Cause to start everything off.

Everything that exists relies on something having made it able to exist.

Things in the world have a cause

Carriages on a train are pulled along by the one in front. However, the first carriage is pulled
by the engine which is not moved by anything else (the unmoved mover). God would be the engine.


Evolution
Darwin's theory of the gradual development of species over millions of years


# Revision style - making notes
Natural Selelction
The way in which species naturally select the best characteristics for survival

# Revision style - making notes

If pushed for time then start the next video @ 6:20mins
Others become Atheist because they are convinced God is not the only explanation for the world. Science for them is proof enough.

Science can explain how things came about without referring to God. Puts existence of God in doubt = Agnostic.

How does this lead to Agnosticism or Atheism?

If people pray and God does not answer them then they might feel frustrated. Or begin to doubt if God exists.

If prayers are unanswered they may begin to question a God who answers some prayers and not others.

They may understand selfish prayers not being answered e.g. let me win the lottery. However, if God doesn’t answer good prayers e.g. end wars, then they may see this as evidence he doesn’t exist.

Prayers are answered but may appear unanswered however…

Selfish prayers = God gives opportunity for you to work hard to get what you want

God knows what is best for people and may not grant certain things.

Jesus said faith is needed to have prayers needed.

Christian responses to unanswered prayers

-
Christians respond by praying for those who suffer. This is called intercessionary prayer.

Christians believe God wants us to help those who suffer like Jesus did e.g healing miracles.

Response 1

Christian Aid was started by Christians to help ease suffering for those in less economically developed countries.

They also help to reduce suffering by being doctors or by founding charities.

Evil and suffering is not God’s fault. God gave humans free will and when they misuse it evil happens.

Response 2

This life prepares us for paradise. We can only improve by coming into contact with evil.

Evil and suffering in this life is part of a plan. Those who suffer will be rewarded in heaven when they die.

Response 3

God has a reason for not using his power to remove evil but humans cant understand it. He is too complicated for us to understand.

Response 4

If we get through pain and misfortune we will be rewarded by God.

His family is killed. He loses all his money and he becomes ill. This happens even though Job is a good man who worships God. He passed God’s test and got everything back.

The story of Job in the Old Testament is an example.

Pain is a test of our faith in God.

Correct answer (bonus) = 10 points

Stealing an answer = - 5 points



Winning team gets a fabulous prize!*
Teams

University of Warwick (P1+P2+P3) University of Edinburgh (P4+P5+P6)
Trinity College, Cambridge (P7+P8+P9)
Worcester College, Oxford (P1+P2+P3)
Clare College, Cambridge (P4+P5+P6)
Newcastle University (P7+P8+P9)

Teams will become specialists in their chosen topic

Group Roles

Question Master
Find out which University you're preparing questions for and study their pre-selected topic
Produce a series of 15 questions with answers on the question cards
During the game you'll be the score keeper

Team Members

Study/revise their pre-selected topics (how will you revise for this quiz?
Design the plaque with your University name



Rules
*fabulous is a subjective term and may actually refer to a prize which many people may find mediocre at best
Christian Belief in Life After Death
All Christians believe there is an afterlife for those who believe in God.

Here are the reasons
why
Christians believe in life after death

Body stays in the grave and the soul goes to God for
judgement

Souls of the good will go to
Heaven
, and the souls of the unrepentant sinners will go to
Hell

Catholics also believe in
purgatory
and that the body will be
resurrected
.


Islamic Belief in Life After Death
Abortion
Some people reject all ideas of an afterlife and you need to understand why this is

Evidence

Humans are mortal

Religion is outdated

Science


Non-Belief in Life After Death
Islamic Attitude towards Abortion
Non-Religious Belief in Life After Death
Near-Death Experience
Euthanasia
Islamic Attitude towards Euthanasia
Matters of Life and Death
The Effect of Belief in the afterlife on Christian Lives
Belief in life after death affects the way Christians live their lives. They believe that God will reward those who have lived according to his will.

Can you explain why:

The effect the belief in the afterlife has on Christian lives

How Christians might respond in their lives
Muslims believe in
akhirah
(life after death). It is one of the main beliefs of Islam that makes a person a Muslim.



Hell

Purgatory

Heaven

Catholic

Nun

Protestant

Prayer

Monk

Golden Rule

Afterlife

Immortality of the soul

Church

Resurrection

Priest

Quality of life

Judgement

Bible

Confession

Commandments






Instructions

Captains have 1min to try and describe as many key terms as possible (pass)
Captains cannot not use any of the words in red on the screen
Team cannot look at the screen but can shout out




A Question of Sport Sprint Finish


God

Has physical qualities but suggests limits

Lives forever, but has no physical qualities

A new heavenly body for the soul


New resurrection body

Body

Soul

Christians believe in life after death for many reasons. The belief in the immortality of the soul leads them to ask ‘In what form will that be?’ It is the form that divides opinion.

Immortality of the Soul & Life After Death

The soul lives on after death and may go to heaven immediately. Most of these Christians do not believe in hell and think there may be levels of heaven where people can continue their religious learning.














These Christians think that there will be an afterlife for all people and all religions but how people have lived in this life determines what happens there.

The immortality of the Soul

Why Muslims Believe in the Afterlife
Akhirah
Create a story board using the key terms below to illustrate the Muslim beliefs of
akhirah
(use P14 in revision guide to help)

Angel of Death
Barzakh
Allah
Day of Judgement
Resurrected
Two angel
al'Jannah
Jahannam

The Qur'an state that we came from Allah and we must return to Allah
The Qur'an and Shari'ah law teaches that Muslims will be judged by Allah and that their actions will determine their afterlife
How does the belief in akhirah effect the life of a Muslim
Paranormal Activity
Reincarnation
Other reasons why people believe in an afterlife

The idea of death is difficult to deal with
Belief in an afterlife seems to make life fairer
People feel loved ones are still with them
A sense of justice for leading a good or bad life
An abortion is the removal of a foetus from the womb before it can survive. It is when a pregnancy is ended by surgical or medical means.













Muslims share similar ideas to Christians about the sanctity of life and abortion

Sanctity of life
- Life for Musliims is sacred and a gift from God. Abortion takes away a life so it's wrong.

Ensoulment
- Life begins when the soul has entered the foetus at 120 days. Some Muslims claim this happens earlier

'Whoever has spared the of a sould, it is as though he has spared the life of all people. Whosoever has killed a soul, it is as though he has murdered all of mankind'
. Qur'an 5:32
Euthanasia is the painless killing of someone dying from a painful disease. This is a controversial issue because some view it as murder whereas others see it as helping someone to carry out the wishes









For Muslims euthanasia is always wrong
Euthanasia is seen as wrong like murder and suicide. Muslims believe they should trust their lives to Allah and life is a test which determines their afterlife. If they try to end their life, they may end up in Hell rather than paradise.






'No one dies unless God permits'. (3:145)

Until 1967 all abortions in Britain were illegal.

The 1967 abortion act made abortion legal in Britain.

Social and legal facts about abortion

An abortion can be carried out if two doctors agree that one of the following apply:

The mother’s life is at risk

There is a risk of injury to the mother’s physical or mental health

There is a risk that having another child will damage the mental or physical health of existing children

There is a substantial risk that the child will be born handicapped.

1967 abortion act

At conception?

During pregnancy e.g. when the baby starts to move in the womb?

When the baby is able to survive outside the womb?

At some other point?

When does life begin?

Life is a gift from God. Therefore it is sacred.

Life is holy and belongs to God

The Sanctity of life

Abortion is wrong and should never be allowed

Only exceptions are ectopic pregnancy or cancer

Catholic attitudes to abortion

Ectopic pregnancy
– This is where a foetus begins to grow in the fallopian tube. The intention is to save the mother’s life by removing the fallopian tube the consequence of this good action is that the baby dies.


Cancer
– By giving the mother life saving chemotherapy the baby dies as a consequence.




IN BOTH CASES THE INTENTION IS TO SAVE THE MOTHER’S LIFE, NOT END THE BABY’S.

The doctrine of double effect

Life is holy and belongs to God, no-one has the right to end a pregnancy

Life begins at conception and continues through birth into death. It is wrong to take life, therefore wrong to abort a foetus.

Everyone has a right to life. Abortion destroys this right.

Why are Catholics opposed to abortion?

Evangelical Protestants have exactly the same view as Catholics. They believe all abortion is wrong for the same reasons as Catholics.

Other Christians (such as Methodists and members of the Church of England) believe that abortion must be permitted in certain circumstances as the lesser of two evils. E.g. if the mother has been raped, if the foetus would be so handicapped that it would have no quality of life, even poverty.

Other Christian views

Life does not begin at conception

Jesus told Christians to love their neighbour and in some cases abortion may be the most loving thing to do.

It is ok to kill in a just war so why can’t there be a just abortion?

Christians should accept technological advances in medicine that help to identify if a child will be born handicapped. They could then choose abortion.

Why do other Christians allow abortion?

Topic Abortion

Team 1
: Rape or incest victim

Team 2
: Girl want to abort against boy's wishes/believes

Team 3
: Girl's going to die as a result of keeping the baby but she has strong faith

Team 4
: Medical technology has detected a problem with the foetus


Group Roles

Jeremy Kyle

Host the debate and draws out the plot
Must have a sound knowledge of the topic of abortion in order to draw out key terms and controversial issues.

Team Members

Boy
Boy's Religious/Non-Religious Parents
Girl
Girl's Religious/Non-Religious Parents
Security Guards



Assisted suicide
– providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide.

Voluntary euthanasia
– where someone dying in pain asks a doctor to end their life painlessly.

Non-voluntary euthanasia
– ending someone’s life painlessly on their behalf when you have good reason to believe it is what they want.

Euthanasia: “A gentle and easy death”

All methods of euthanasia are crimes in the UK and anyone involved in euthanasia can be sent to prison.

Some countries (e.g. the Netherlands) allow euthanasia if it is agreed by the patient, the patient’s relatives and at least two doctors.

Euthanasia and the law

Some relatives may take advantage of the law to get hold of someone’s wealth.

A cure might be found for the disease

Doctors should be saving lives not ending them

People might not be in their right mind when they ask for euthanasia

Non- religious reasons for opposing euthanasia

Some people are kept alive by advances in technology and medicine but their quality of life is appalling. Some people argue that doctors should end their lives painlessly

Life support machines have brought in a type of euthanasia already as they can be switched off.

Some doctors have been allowed to refuse to give food and treatment to people who will not recover.

It should be a basic human right to have control over you own death.

Some people want the law changed to allow euthanasia


All forms of euthanasia are wrong

Catholic attitudes to euthanasia

The sanctity of life. Only God can end life.

Euthanasia is murder and therefore a grave sin

Catholics allow some treatments to be withheld eg drastic chemotherapy that will only prolong life by a few weeks. But they will not allow treatment to be withheld as a form of euthanasia.

The doctrine of double effect can be applied to shorten life if the intention is to ease suffering.

Switching off a life support machine is seen as euthanasia.

Why are Catholics opposed to euthanasia?

Most agree with Catholics for the same reasons

TWO EXCEPTIONS

Some would allow machines to be switched off.

Some would argue that suicide is OK if a person can no longer cope with life. God will not see this as a sin.

Other Christian attitudes.

As a team you have
two minutes
to answer as many of the 15 questions as possible

Every correct answer =
1 step
Opposition chaser stealing an answer =
- 1 step

For draws time will be taken into account



Winning team gets a fabulous prize!*
Teams

Team 1 (P12+P13+P14+P15)
Team 2 (P12+P13+P14+P15)

Team 3 (P16+P17+P18+P19)
Team 4 (P16+P17+P18+P19)

Team 5 (P20+P21+P22+P23)
Team 6 (P20+P21+P22+P23)

Teams will become specialists in their chosen topic

Group Roles

Chaser
You cannot be apart of your groups revision or question making process
You'll face the opposition team during their turn, if they fail to answer a question then you have the opportunity to push them back
When it's your teams go to face the chaser then you'll be able to help answer questions

Team Members

Study/revise their pre-selected topics (how will you revise for this quiz?)
Produce 15 questions & answers on your chosen topics for the opposition team



Team Chase Rules
*fabulous is a subjective term and may actually refer to a prize which many people may find mediocre at best

Changing Attitudes towards Marriage and the Family in the UK
Christian Attitudes to Sex Outside Marriage
Muslim Attitude to Sex Outside Marriage
Christian Attitudes to Divorce
Muslim Attitudes to Divorce
Christian Teaching on Family Life
Muslim teaching on Family Life
Christian Attitudes to homosexuality
Muslim Attitude to Homosexuality
Christian Attitudes to Contraception
Can you name all the different types of families?

Recently, attitudes towards issues such as marriage, divorce, the family and homosexuality have changed and you need to be aware of the reasons for this:

Multi-Faith and Multi Ethnic Society

People are more tolerant

Christianity has less of an influence

Fewer religious marriage ceremonies

Women are more equal

More people are choosing to cohabit

Same sex marriage


Most Christians believe that their religion teaches that sex outside marriage is wrong.

The Bible teaches:

Sex is special and should be saved for marriage

Adultery is forbidden in the Ten Commandments

Married couples should be faithful

When might Christians believe Sex before marriage is acceptable?


Sex outside marriage is strictly forbidden in Islam.

Islam teaches:

1 - Sex is special so at puberty boys and girls are kept separate

2 - Adultery is forbidden by Allah

3 - Muslim should not behave in a sexual manner towards others

4 - The main purpose of sex is
procreation

5 - The ideal marriage partner is one who loves Allah


Divorce is the legal termination of a marriage and has become more acceptable in today's society. Different Christians have different attitudes to divorce

Common reasons for divorce are:

Adultery

Unreasonable behavior

Desertion


In Islam, marriage is a contract which means Muslims can legally get divorced. However, although it is allowed, Muslim do not like divorce and it is a
last resort

Note in your mindmap the 4 stages to Divorce in Islam

1 - The husband must announce his intentions 3 times over 3 months

2 - Couple must live together but do not have sex to avoid pregnancy

3 - The couple and their families have a chance to try and work things out

4 - After 3 months the couple are free to re-marry


The Family unit and family life are very important to Christians

1. The Foundation of society

2. Family Relationhips

3. Social environment of the Church

4. The Church

Put the four pillars to family life in your mindmap at the back and use the following video to help make notes
The Family is very important to Muslims

Traditionally, Muslim families are extended families. They include parents, children, grandparents and other relatives

Muslims believe extended families offer greater stability, love and support

The elderly are treated with respect and children are expected to look after older family members

it is at the heart of the community

Do you know what the Muslim family values are?

http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/clips/ztgw2p3




Christians are divided over views on the topic of homosexuality

Wrong because:

Marriage was intended by God to be between one man and one women, homosexuals should remain celibate

Same-sex couples can not have children and sex is for the purposes of pro-creation

Allowed because:


Love thy neighbour

Same-sex couples demonstrate such as love and should be allowed to celebrate their commitment


Most Muslims strongly oppose homosexuality and do not believe it should be permitted

Muslim belief

Forbidden in the Qur'an
Punishable by death according to Islamic Shari'ah law
Can not procreate
Harmful to their health



Muslim Attitudes to Contraception
Contraception is the intentional prevention of pregnancy.

What are the reasons for choosing contraception?

Some Christian believe contraception is wrong, because:
Every sexual act should be open to the possibility of having a child
Sex was a gift from God for procreation
Contraception promotes promiscuity

Others accept, because
Helps family planning
Sex is not just for procreation



Muslims are divided on their views regarding contraception. As there is no specific reference in the Qur'an to contraception, different groups approach the use of it differently and have different attitudes to it

Why do some Muslim oppose the use of contraception?

Why do some believe it is more acceptable?
Muslim Attitudes to Equal Rights for Women
Muslims believe that Allah created all humans equal but not the same. They are seen to have different roles and responsibilities

Men

The Qur'an teaches that men should protect women
Men should provide for their wife and children
Should dress modestly
Should attend the Mosque for prayer and worship separately in the Mosque

Women

Required to have children
Expected to look after the home and children
Should dress modestly in loose clothing
Do not have to attend the Mosque and must worship separately to men


Changing Attitudes to Gender Roles in the UK
The roles of men and women have changed significantly over the past 100 years














How have gender roles changed?
Are male and female roles now equal?



The UK as a Multi-Ethic Society
The UK has a multi-ethnic society, meaning it is made up of many different races, cultures and nationalities living together

Problems in a multi-ethic society

Ignorance - being uneducated or uniformed about others
Racism - the belief that some ethnic groups are superior
Discrimination - treating someone differently because of previously held prejudices
Persecution - ethic minorities having their human rights abused

Benefits of a multi-ethnic society

Encourages racial harmony
Gives a wider variety of; music, food, clothes and culture
Fresh ideas


Why Christians should Promote Racial Harmony
All Christians believe racism is wrong as the Bible teaches that everyone is equal in the eyes of God

Christian teachings
Parable of the Good Samaritan
The Golden Rule
Promote Racial Harmony

Examples: Dr Martin Luther King Jr (1929








Why Muslims should Promote Racial Harmony
Islam teaches that all people are equal and therefore racism is always wrong. All Muslims are part of the
ummah
- the Islamic community of Muslims worldwide

Reasons why Muslims promote racial harmony
Allah created all humans
The Prophet declared in his last sermon that 'there is no difference between Arabs and non-Arabs'
All races are loved by Allah
Prophet Muhammed declared that all people were descended from Adam and Eve
The Qur'an teaches that no race is superior

Examples: Malcolm X (1925-1965)


A,B,C Game






The UK as a Multi-Faith Society
The UK is a multi-faith society in which people of different religions live alongside each other

What are the benefits and challenges of living in a multi-faith society?

Different faiths existing alongside each other in a country can raise some important issues. Most religious believers in the UK believe that people should follow the religion of their choice. However, others do no agree:

Exclusivism
Inclusivism
Religious



Religion and community Cohesion
Key Words

Hey guys, I didn’t ask to be yellow!

Discrimination is the act.

Prejudice is the thought.

I’m not sure I like the look of this fella!

Discrimination:

‘Treating people unfairly because of their race, colour, gender, class, age, etc.’

Prejudice:

‘Believing some people are inferior or superior without even knowing them.’

Prejudice & Discrimination

Traditionally certain roles have seemed more suited to certain genders.

Remember, men can be the victims of sexism too.

Women make up 84% of workers in the service industries (care assistants, child minders, hairdressers, checkout staff etc.). Men make up 66% of
all senior officials (managers and business professionals).
(2001 Census)

Equality: ‘The state of everyone having equal rights.’

Sexism: ‘Discriminating against people because of their gender (sex).’

Sexism

‘The Qualification of Women Act 1918’ gave women over 31 the right to vote in elections. In 1928 the age was lowered to 21 to be the same as men. Today all people over the age of 18 can vote.

Advances in Equal Rights for Women

‘The Sex Discrimination Act 1975’ made it
illegal to discriminate against any person
because of their gender (sex).

‘The Equal Pay Act 1970’ ensures men and women are paid equally for doing the same jobs.

4. UN Declaration of Human Rights includes equality for all people no matter of race or gender.

3. Successful women in business and politics around the world show that women are every bit equal to men.

2. Countries such as New Zealand gave women equal rights opening the way for other countries to do the same.

For Christians the bible sometimes seems to say different things. Most Christians believe men and women are equal whilst Catholic Christians believe they are equal but were given different roles by God.

1. During the First and Second World Wars women had to take on the jobs previously done by men and proved they could do them just as well.

‘Women must remain silent in church, they are not allowed to speak.’
1 Corinthians 14:34

‘Wives submit to your husband… for the husband is head of the wife.’
Ephesians 5:22

‘There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ.’ Galatians 3:28

‘God created humanity in his own image, male and female he created them both.’ Genesis 1:27

‘The Bible on Women’

Why Attitudes Have Changed Towards Women

The Church of England have officially accepted the ordination of women; but some churches still
refuse to employ a woman as a their vicar.

‘Ordination’ is when the Church officially recognises a person as a priest/vicar etc.

‘The Lord chose men to form his 12 disciples and the apostles did the same when they chose their successors. For this reason the ordination of women is not possible.’

The Methodist Church has allowed women to hold any level of leadership within the church for many years.

The Catholic Church do not accept women as priests:

Women and the Church

‘We state that Christian belief is incompatible with any philosophy that is based on hatred or treats people as inferior because of their race, religion or for any other reason.’ Baptist Church

‘Every form of social & cultural discrimination must be stopped and eradicated as incompatible
with God’s design.’ Catholic Church

‘We state that racism is a direct contradiction to the teaching of Christ.’ Methodist Church

Racism is strongly rejected in the Christian Church.

Racism vs Racial Harmony

It is thought that some young people from minority backgrounds turn to crime because they cannot see a future for themselves in a discriminating society.

Police believe that when people feel discriminated against they are more likely to join extremist groups and take part in acts of terrorism.

The July 7th (2005) bombers were British citizens who had lost their sense of allegiance to Britain and were prepared to kill because they felt society worked against them.

In 2001, white and Asian youths from communities isolated themselves off from each other, rioted and attacked and killed each other on the streets of Oldham, Burnley and Bradford.

Racism and discrimination in society can lead to the rise in groups such as the BNP who encourage division between different ethnic groups in society.

If certain groups feel that they are being treated unfairly by society, they may become insular, cut themselves off from society, and even work against that society.

The Effects of Discrimination & Racism

Segregation: This was where black people were not permitted to mix with white people on buses, in restaurants and in schools. This mostly happened in South Africa and the USA.

The Slave Trade: Over 4 million black people were taken from their homelands to
other countries
to work as
slaves for
white people.

Racism

Racism happens when people believe that some races are better than others. In the past this has led to many injustices happening:

Racism: ‘Discriminating against people because of their race or colour.’

Institutional racism means

A - Treating people less favourably because of their ethnicity / gender / colour / sexuality / age / class

B - The Belief that some races are superior to others

C - The failure of an organization to provide an appropriate service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin

Hajj means


A - All Muslims pray facing Makkah

B – Muslims pray together in Arabic

C – The pilgrimage to the holy city



A, B or C

Racial Harmony is


A – When all races live together happily

B – Where people are judged on the colour of their skin

C – Community of Christians and Muslims worldwide

A, B or C

Dr Martin Luther King Jr


A – Put Muslim principles of helping others and treating people equally into action

B – Slept a lot and therefore had a lot of dreams

C – Enabled equal voting rights in 1965


A, B or C

A, B or C

The definition of racism is

A - Treating people less favourably because of their ethnicity / gender / colour / sexuality / age / class

B - The Belief that some races are superior to others

C – The EDL


Everyone needs a whiteboard

There are 3 levels:

One leg on chair
Standing
Sitting on chair

Those still on the first level at the end win!

A, B or C

Odd one Out

A – Treat others the way you would like to be treated

B – Love your neighbour as yourself (Luke 10:27)

C – The Qur’an teaches that no race is better than any other



A, B or C

A, B or C

What can be done to promote community cohesion?


People

Establishing groups such as the
Equality and Human Rights Commission to ensure government laws are acted upon. Making sure all groups in society are represented fairly in education, social services, police and government.

Funding


Giving financial support to groups
and community projects which promote equality and unity or provide research in to the best ways of achieving Community Cohesion.

Laws

Passing laws such as the Race Relations Act and the Crime and Disorder Act and the Race and Religious Hatred Act which make it illegal to discriminate against people or encourage hatred due to
race or religion.

Education

Community Cohesion was made part of the national curriculum in 2006. Ofsted judge all schools on how they include community cohesion into their lessons and overall school life.

The UK has always offered a safe place for people from overseas who may be escaping troubles or trying to find work and improve their lives. The government has tried to encourage all people living in the UK to live and work together peacefully
Leading to...

The Race Relations Act 1976

It is unlawful to discriminate against anyone because of race, colour, nationality or ethnic origin in regard to jobs, training, housing, education, and services.
It is unlawful to use threatening, abusive or insulting words in public that could stir up in racial hatred.
It is unlawful to publish anything that is likely to cause racial hatred.

The Law & Racism

The Commission for Racial Equality

An organisation set up by the Government in 1976 to enforce the Race Relations Act.
To advice the Government on how the law was working and any necessary alterations.
To promote the concept of equal opportunities.

Government Action to Promote Community Cohesion

Jesus told a story about minority groups and helping others

The Good Samaritan

HM Office of National Statistics 2001 Census

Most people believe that individuals have the right to believe in the god of their choice and follow the religion they choose.

Every 10 years the British Government holds a census (national questionnaire) of the population. The purpose is to build an accurate picture of Britain today.
One question is about people’s religious belief.

Religious Freedom:
‘The right to practice your religion and change your religion if you want to.’

Multi-Faith Britain

The main religious groups in the UK

Christian
No Religion
No Answer
Muslim
Hindu
Sikh
Jewish
Buddhist
Other Religion

42,558,000
8,197,221
4,823,000
1,591,207
558,746
336,040
267,711
149,237
157,000

This goes against what Jesus said in the Bible (John 3:16).

Problem:

When religious people die they will realise Jesus’ teaching was the right way and convert after death.

God saved people before Christianity existed. God will save people who lived right lives as if the God they followed had been the right one.

Inclusive: Some Christians believe you should only go to heaven by accepting Jesus, and his teachings, but, some members of other religions and some non-Christians may also be able to go to heaven.

Inclusive Christians

John Hick: Modern day theologian, philosopher and religious pluralist.

Most other world religions reject pluralism and are either inclusive or, more commonly, exclusive.

Pluralist belief goes against the teaching of Jesus so is not always considered as truly Christian.

Problems:

Faithful followers of all religions will be saved and go to heaven. All religious experience comes from God, different cultures follow it in different ways. E.g. Hinduism in India.

Religious Pluralism: ‘Accepting all religions as equally valid and correct and can all coexist.’

Pluralist Christians

Hick concluded; all religions are looking for the same God.
Eventually all followers will reach the same summit.
Each route is “mapped out” through the cultural, family and religious experiences of their life.
Hick pictures religion like mountain paths. People try and get to the top but take different routes.

Hick’s Mountain Paths:

John Hick: Religious Pluralism

Hick pictured the summit as God
Community cohesion is when all groups in society share a common vision and sense of belonging


Recognise the common features between faiths
Respect differences
Listen to each other
Learn to live and work in unity
Share common values such as respect, tolerance, charity and non-violence
Through religious groups, such as the Council of Christians and the interfaith Network for the UK

By sharing basic understanding that God created all humans equals

Muslim Council of Britain encourages Muslims to take an active role in society

Celebration of festival and worship

Role models
There are many organizations that try to establish community cohesion and better relationships between faiths in the UK. To live peacefully together they will need to:















How can religion help community cohesion
Examples of religious community cohesion

Education and youth: provide a free family fun day for diverse communities
Examples of religious community cohesion

Leisure: A 'night cafe' project that provides a sae place for people to go and addresses issues of anti social behaviour.
Examples of religious community cohesion

Workplace: supports hospitals, the university and town centres from the Bolton community.
Revision Guide P11
Worksheet Q1-8
Revision Guide P1
Worksheet Q9
Each picture represents a key word from section 1. Can you identify the key word and explain what it means?
Make notes from the revision guide P2
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Revision Guide P2
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Make notes on the following scientific explanations of the origins of the world
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Revision Guide P7
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Revision Guide P8 + 9
Worksheet Q14
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Revision Guide P12
Make notes on the mindmaps at the back
Thinking Hard
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Thinking Hard
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Revision Guide P25
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Thinking Hard
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Revision Guide P37
Q9
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Q15
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Q17
REsources

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