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What did you observe?
How did you feel?
Talk with the people around and discuss...
. telephone numbers
. weird symbol words
Learning words as wholes:
Synthetic phonics starts by teaching letters and sounds and then, after just a few have been learned, teaches children to sound out the letters in simple words from left to right and then blend (synthesise) the sounds.
READ MADE UP
WRITE MADE UP WORDS
The aim of the nonsense word activities was to remind you how to work out words using the English alphabetic code. For reading the nonsense words, you used your letter-sound knowledge and blending skills, and for the writing, you used your ability to write letters for the sounds you identified. With Jolly Phonics, these skills are taught to children as early as possible so that they too can work out words for themselves.
•To teach the alphabetic code, to use blending.
•To read words rather than trying to memorize the words by their shape.
•To avoid asking the children to read or write a word that contains a letter-sound that has not yet been taught.
At the same time, the children are taught how to write letters and how to identify the individual sounds in words.
Increasing numbers of words can and should be blended as each letter sound is introduced. Once words have been blended a few times, they can be read without blending, as if they were a sight word.
synthetic-phonics programs also teach the sounds made by digraphs, such as /ai/, /ee/, /oa/, /or/ and /ou/. Although learning the sounds made by digraphs is slightly more difficult than learning the sounds made by single letters, the children just need to learn to say one sound for the two letters. Care is taken to ensure that the new letter knowledge is put into practice straight away, with plenty of blending and segmenting of regular words that use the new digraphs.
Synthetic phonics can make the difference
between a good reader and a poor one
The complexity of the English alphabetic code
One spelling can represent multiple sounds:
e.g. "ough" /oa/ though
The alphabetic code needs to be taught from simple to complex.
Jolly Phonics is a synthetic-phonics program. It teaches the children, in a simple multi-sensory way, how the English reading and writing system works. That is to say, it teaches children to use the basic alphabetic code to work out unknown words before expecting them to read books for themselves or to write independently.
One sound can be represented
by one, two, three or four
letters: e.g. k, sh, ou, igh, eigh
One sound can be represented by different spellings: e.g. /oa/ is represented by: 0, oa, ow, oe, o-e, ough
Learning through several body senses.
Learning the letter-sounds
lower-case letters, capital letters will be taught incidentally.
We use the letter-sounds not their names. (after the 5th group)
All the letters are introduced in a similar fashion. When /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/ are taught, the children need to know that these are ‘special letters’ and are called vowels. Later on, the children will be told the useful rules relating to the vowels, which will help them with spelling. At this point, the children can be taught that the other letters are consonants.
VOWELS AND CONSONANTS
Reinforcement of the letter sounds:
The faster the children are at recognizing the letters and saying the sounds, the easier it will be for them to read and write.
Running to the correct
Fishing for letters
A sound that is represented by two letters.
e.g. sh, ou, ai, ee, *th, *oo, etc.
Two or more sounds blended
e.g. st as in stop
fl as in flower.
ALTERNATIVE SPELLING OF LETTER-SOUNDS
Once the children have learned the main way of writing each of the 42 sounds, they need to be taught that some of the sounds can be written in a number of ways. These alternative spellings are taught gradually during the rest of the year.
Alternative letter sound spellings:
/ai/ ay (play), a-e (late)
/ee/ ea (team), e-e (these)
/ie/ igh (sigh), y (cry), i-e (time)
/oa/ ow (slow), o-e (hope)
/ue/ ew (few), u-e (tube)
If young children are to achieve neat, legible handwriting, they need to be taught how to hold their pencil, and how to form letters correctly. Early mastery of these skills is well worth the extra effort involved. Anyone who has tried to correct an older child’s bad pencil hold, or incorrect formation, knows how difficult, if not impossible, it can be.
TEACHING LETTER FORMATION:
1. Write it on the board
2. Write it in the air.
3. volunteers to trace letters in mirror writing.
It is useful to see if students are tracing letters correctly.
Learn lower-cases first.
To learn the correct use of capital letters.
By concentrating on correct letter formation and pencil hold, from the outset, bad habits can be prevented. The extra focus on these skills also makes it easier for the children to develop neat, fluent, joined handwriting; this in turn means that they take pride in their work.
Go through the stories, actions and songs of the 42 letter-sounds
letter sounds video
For correct pencil hold, the pencil should rest between the thumb and the first finger; the middle finger should be used to prevent the pencil falling down and the last two fingers should be tucked under the middle finger.
Give your own ideas and try some of ours.
In couples, write as many words as you can using group one letter-sounds (s, a, t, i, p, n)
It is progressive and
b and d are in separate groups.
The "c" is introduced early.(a,d,o,g,q)
Learning the letter sounds
The process of looking at the letters, say the sounds and hear the word.
Every sound in the word is needed for blending.
The number of sounds can be fewer than the number of letters.
Blending written words.
The children who can hear the words understand how the alphabetic code works. They realize that the code is something they can work out for themselves. This knowledge fascinates them and their confidence in reading grows.
Reading books (after the 8th/9th week)
There are two types of sound in English:
the ones with a schwa.
Blending consonant blends and digraphs
Say the consonant blend first and then the following individual sounds.
With the digraphs, say just the one sound that the two letters make together.
When two vowels go walking, the first does the talking.
If the short sound doesn´t work, try the long one.
Magic letter (unicorn, acorn)
shy i and toughy y
Conclusions (fluency, comprehension)
I say, you say it
Identifying sounds in words
Hearing the sounds in words is one of the main skills needed for writing. When children can hear each sound in a simple word and know how to write the letters that represent those sounds, they can write hundreds of words by themselves, such as mat, pen, hop, lid, fun, bed, run, it; the list goes on.
The ability to hear the sounds in words does not usually develop naturally, and when people report that a child cannot hear the sounds in words, it is usually because he or she has not yet been taught this skill. Fortunately, it is relatively easy to teach a child to identify sounds. Nevertheless, in order to teach the children this skill, it is first necessary for the teacher to be able to hear the sounds in words.
Segmenting is the skill needed to hear the sounds in words and to develop phonemic awareness.
Good spellers are aware of the sounds they write.
Hold up fingers to count sounds in words.
Use arm to teach directionality.
Focus on the beginning sounds first, then focus in the last sounds and finally, focus on the middle sounds of the words.
When the first digraphs are introduced, the children need to understand that sometimes they have to write two letters for a sound. The first digraph is the /ai/ sound. The children listen for the sounds in a word containing /ai/, for example nail, and call out, /n/-/ai/-/l/, holding up a finger for each of the three sounds. As the sounds are spoken the letters can be written on the board. When the ‹ai› is written on the board, it reinforces the idea that this single sound is written with two letters. Other /ai/ words can then be called out for the children to segment, such as, rain, paint, sail, fail, pain, and drain.
ENCODING AND DECODING
The skill of writing can be demonstrated by asking for the sounds in the words and writing the letters on the board as the children call them out. The word can then be blended and read. This allows the children to see the significance of encoding to write and decoding to read.
Initial consonant blends: bl, cl, fl, pl, sl, br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr, st, sc, sm, sn, tw, shr, thr, scr, spr and str.
Final consonant blends:
lb, ld, lf, lk, lm, ln, lp, lt, ct, ft, nt, pt, xt, mp and nd.
In order to help the children hear all the sounds in consonant and final blends, call out the blends and ask the children to say the individual sounds, holding up a finger for each one. For example, say /cr/ and ask the children to respond with the sound /c/ (holding up the thumb) and /r/ (holding up the index finger). Call out several more of these blends. Take care that the component letter sounds have already been taught. Then, on a regular basis, call out a few words containing consonant blends, so that the children can count the sounds.
words within words (pink, mice, bus, block, twin, stop)
Pictures with dots.
1. Single letters
2. CVC words
3. Words with consonant blends and digraphs.
4. Tricky words.
5. Short sentences.
6. Capital letters.
7. Teach full stop and when to use capital letters.
* Jolly Phonics dictionary and word bank book
As soon as a child can hear the sounds in words and knows how to write the 42 sounds, they can write anything they want to say. At first, the children will not be able to use conventional spelling, but their work can be read by others. The sentence, ‘mie mumi poot mie book in mie scool bag’ is a typical outcome. Accurate spelling comes as a result of extensive reading, knowledge of the alternative spellings and the use of a systematic spelling program.
It is impossible for young children to have the freedom to write exactly what they want to say, and to spell all the words correctly. If everything is corrected, it is demoralising, and discourages the children from writing so freely. Generally speaking, it is best to restrict the errors marked to about three or four words.
72 TRICKY WORDS:
Tricky words are frequently used words that are either irregular, or can only be read with phonic knowledge that has not yet been taught. Despite their name, some part of a tricky word will always be regular. For example, in the word come the ‹c› and ‹m› are regular; the ‹o_e› is awkward because it makes an /u/ sound. The children think of the awkward bits as being out to trick them!
Children are more able to read and write tricky words when they have knowledge of letter sounds and can relate those sounds to symbols. When learning to read tricky words, the children should initially blend the letter sounds together, before learning the correct pronunciation. The children find it interesting to look carefully for the ‘tricky’ part in the words; by doing this they start to analyze words. The children’s extra attention to the details helps to store the word in their memories.
In the Jolly Phonics program, there are 72 tricky words. For ease of learning, these words have been divided up into color-coded groups of twelve tricky words each.
The Jolly Phonics list of tricky words has been designed so that it starts with the most frequently used words; it is also designed so that words with the same spelling patterns are taught in the same group. For this reason, it is advisable to teach the tricky words in order.
Introducing the tricky words
The introduction of the tricky words should ideally start when the sixth group of letter sounds is being taught. The tricky words can then be taught at a pace of three new tricky words a week; although more can be taught, if they share a similar spelling pattern, examples being: he, she, me, we and be.
Teaching the spelling of tricky words
The children should only begin to learn how to spell tricky words when they can read the first ones easily. Aim to teach the spellings of about two tricky words a week, making sure that the children also revise those already taught. Some fortunate children have a sufficiently good visual memory to master the spelling of the tricky words just by reading them. However, most children have to be specifically taught.
Research evidence tells us that the spelling ability of synthetic-phonics taught children is higher than that of children taught by other methods.
Teaching the spelling of tricky words:
Look, copy, cover, write, check
Say it as it sounds
Word families or patterns for example, the word like should be linked to the words (bike, trike, hike, pike and Mike)
Give examples of a Jolly Phonics class.
Design a Jolly Phonics class in teams.
The tricky words in English always cause problems. Learning to read these words is easier than learning to spell them. By teaching the children to observe the irregularities, and by giving them techniques and simple rules, you are enabling them to be more accurate in their spelling.
What is a
* activity: dictation
True or False
A whole word approach teaches words as wholes and relies on memory skills.
With the Analytic Phonics approach we can teach the digraphs.
Synthetic phonics has a slow pace and teaches one letter per week.
Jolly Phonics is a program that uses a multisensory approach.
The English alphabetic code is complex because it has influence from different languages.
The English code has 100 sounds.
When reading unknown words, we use our knowledge of the alphabetic code.
Hearing the sounds in words is important for writing.
Blending is used for writing.
A digraph is when two letters make a new sound together.
A consonant blend is when two consonants are together in a word and only one says its sound.
Jolly Phonics teaches the sounds following the alphabetical order.
Mirror writing is for you to check if your students are doing the letters correctly.
Teaches individual words explicitly, for example by using flashcards or reading schemes based on the repetition of high-frequency words.
Whole word approach:
. Look and Say:
Expects children to identify printed words by using cues from context and pictures.