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Civil Rights Movement

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Cassandra Hammond

on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of Civil Rights Movement

"Nonviolence is a powerful and just weapon. It is a weapon unique in history, which cuts without wounding and ennobles the man who wields it. It is a sword that heals."
-- Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
African-American Civil Rights Movement Timeline
Dec. 1st, 1955
Montgomery, Alabama
Rosa Parks was arrested for sitting in the “Whites Only” section of the bus.
African-Americans and their allies reacted by refusing to use the city bus system.
Bus Boycotts
Campaign lasted for 1 year and 20 days, until the laws were overturned.
People walked, biked, and supported each other.
The cities involved in the boycott lost a large amount of money in bus fare.
Psychologists (Clarks) found that separate schooling was damaging.
Desegregation was not welcomed by all.
National Guard had to get involved.
Opened gates for other ethnicities to be desegregated also.
Topeka, Kansas
Courts declared that “separate but equal” schools were unconstitutional.
14th Amendment provides for “equal protection under the law”
Brown v.
The Board of Education
Feb. 1st, 1960 – Greensboro, North Carolina
Lunch counters were segregated.
African-Americans were not allowed to be served food at “White’s Only” counters.
4 young African-American men sat at the counter waiting to be served until closing.
Greensboro Sit-ins
The next day it was 20 people.
By the end of the 4th day there were over 300 people at the counter. Woolsworth’s refused to serve them.
The movement spread to other areas of the South.
July 25th, 1960 African Americans were served at “White’s Only” counters and all of the chains were desegregated.
May 4th, 1961
Began in Washington D.C.
The Supreme Court had ruled that segregated buses were unconstitutional.
The Freedom Riders set out to test this.
Freedom Rides
Most of the trip was peaceful.
The group met with violence once they got to Alabama.
Buses were burned and riders were arrested.
The National Guard escorted the buses for the duration.
Aug. 28th, 1963
Washington, D.C.
Large political rally.
Between 200,000 and 300,000 participants
Marked the 100th year of the Emancipation Proclamation
March on Washington
Marched from Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial
Many speeches and musical performances
Martin Luther King’s “I Have A Dream” speech was given on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial
Credited as the reason behind the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Sep. 15th, 1963
Birmingham, Alabama
Turning point in the Civil Rights Movement
Bombed by KKK members
4 young girls were murdered in the bombing.
Church Bombing
The victims were: Addie (14), Denise (11), Carole (14), and Cynthia (14).
More than 8,000 mourners attended the funeral services
No city leaders attended.
The case remained unsolved for several years.
President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law in July of 1964.
Full transcript