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Copy of Chapter 11 The Americas

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Jason Herrud

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 11 The Americas

The Aztecs
The Aztecs were located in the Mexico valley
Three cities combines to create Tenochtitlan
the capital city.
They ate corn, tomatoes, avocados, atole, and tamales. Chocolate was for the warriors
The aztecs believed in a heaven with 13 levels and an underworld with 9 levels.
Chapter 11 The Americas
Caleb, Micah, Josh, Tim, and Tony
Warlike people
Relied on Agriculture
"Lost Civilization of Peru"
Moche Civilization 300AD- 743Ad
On the coastal regions of modern day Peru and Ecuador
domesticated plants and animals
created irrigation methods
Chavin Civilization
1200 BC-200 AD
The Iroquois Tribes

The Iroquois tribes existed in the North-East around present-day New York, Maine, and parts of Canada.

These people hunted deer, bear, and caribou. They farmed corn, beans, and squash.

The Iroquois built longhouses made of wooden poles and surrounded by fences that could be up to 200 feet in length and could hold a dozen families.

The Iroquois were divided into five major tribes that often fought each other. The major tribes were the Seneca, Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, and the Oneida.
• An Iroquois elder, Deganawida, preaches the need for peace among the Iroquois. Another Iroquois leader Hiawatha listens and forms an alliance called the Iroquois League.
Clagg Betty and others, "Glencoe world History," 2008, pg372-381
Google images
The Moches were a thriving civilization, providing food for the whole region
The Inuit Tribes

The Inuit tribe originated from Asia, but they were able to cross the Bering Strait into the Arctic.
• These people were skilled hunters. There were three hunting seasons that each focused on one animal. They hunted seal during the spring, caribou during the summer, then they fished and hunted whale during the fall.
• They built temporary shelters out of bricks called igloos.
The Anasazi Tribes

The Anasazi lived out West in present-day New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona.

Had extensive farming where they grew lots of corn and beans.

Built three-story insulated pueblos out of stone and adobe (dried brick) that housed several people.

Had a large center in Chaco Canyon called Pueblo Bonito. Pueblo Bonito was a large series of inter-connected pueblos that housed about 1,000 people. After about 50 years they leave because of prolonged droughts.

Went to Colorado where they built another large city called Mesa Verde which was also abandoned because of droughts.
Section 1: The Peoples of North America
General Info

North America stretches more than 14,000 miles from Mexico to Canada.

There are varying climates and geographical features including deserts, mountains, tundras, rivers, lakes, forests, and river valleys.

Around 20,000 years ago because of low sea levels there was a land bridge across the Bering Strait connecting North America with Asia.
All Section 1 Sources
Vogel, Spiel, "World History", p. 368-371
The moches built great aqueducts, which allowed them to grow crops in the desert and mountains
The Moches had no written language we know about them through there jewelery and artwork
They believed in Human Sacrifice, when a battle was won the vanquished, throats were slain and the blood was drained into a cup. Then the blood was drank by a god like deity
Buildings and Structures
The Moches built large and bizarre pyramids. These pyramids were made of mud brick.
Pyramids were constructed for there gods. Each pyramid was like a temple, where exotic murals telling great stories were painted on the outside. While human sacrifices and rituals took place on the outside
Priests were considered to be the most important people in this culture, followed by the warriors. These people lived closest to the beautiful pyramids and temples.

The Moche people of Peru believed that human sacrifice was mandatory if they were to be blessed with many of the necessities of life.

The Mayans (300-900 A.D.)
The Mayans were the most sophisticated civilization in the Americas. Their area of land covered much of Central America and southern Mexico. Like the Greeks they used city-states to govern/rule their people.
In those city-states they used a hereditary ruling class.
The rulers believed that they were direct decedents from a god

Most of the population were peasant farmers or peasant hunters. The Men did the fighting and farming. While the women stayed home taking care of the children and making food.
Nazcas 1-750 AD
Jewelery and Artwork
Moche pottery was mostly based on mythology, ceremony and their daily life and depicted varied scenes that ranged from fishing and hunting to religion, combat and sexual activities.

Hopewell Tribes
The Chavins built a temple called 'Huaca Garagay' with stones gathered from nearby hills. The temple was surrounded by stone figures depicting different gods as well as 2 pyramids.
The Moches are credited to have the most exotic and beautiful jewelery and pottery of any ancient civilization. Many pots and artifacts found from the Moches are on display in museums in Peru.
Watch Video
The Hopewell lived in the Ohio River Valley.
• The Hopewell built earth mounds for different ceremonies, such as funerals.
• The Hopewell had extensive farming practices for farming corn, beans, and squash.
The Nazcas are known for the art that they left behind. The most famous- The Nazca Lines. These were grooves etched into rocky soil that depicted animals, (especially birds) humans, and geometric shapes.
Great Plains Indians
• The Great Plains Indians lived west of the Mississippi River on the Great Plains.
• The Great Plains Indians farmed beans, corn, and squash.
• They relied on buffalo for food, clothing, shelter, and tools.
• They ate buffalo, used furs for clothing, used skins to make tepees, and used bones for tools and weapons.
Although there many theories as to why the Moches disappeared many historians believe they were wiped out by a super El Niño which lasted 30 years, followed a 30 year drought. A phenomenon of weather, an El Niño brings alternating periods of flooding and drought.
This made it hard to harvest crops and fish. A massive amount of deaths are believed to occur during this time, not because of the El Niño but because of them sacrificing so many people to please their gods.

Incas Early 15 Century AD- 1539 AD
The empire began in the city of Cuzco and rapidly became a vast empire when their leader, Pachacuti, began expanding their control after stopping an invasion of the city.
The Hopewell built Cahokia, a huge city near present-day St. Louis that held approximately 10,000 people.
The aztecs believed in 10 gods.
Huitzilopochtli - led them to where they would settle
Tlaloc - Rain god
Tonatiuh - Sun god
Tezcatlipoca - Represented an evil power
Chalchiuhtlicue - The goddess of water
Centeotl - The god of corn
Quetzalcoatl - The god of knowledge
Xipe Totec - The god of agriculture
Mayahuel - The goddess of the plant maguey
Tlaltecuhtli - The earth goddess
They accomplished all of this without
the wheel, powerful draft animals, iron, currency, or a writing system!
Social Class

The empire began in the city of Cuzco and rapidly became a vast empire when their leader, Pachacuti, began expanding their control after stopping an invasion of the city.
Inca Society
The Inca empire was built on war. All young men within the empire served in the Inca army.

Their social structure was fairly normal for an ancient civlization. The kings and priests were at the top and lived near the pyramids and temples. They were praised and worshiped. They also were showered in lots of jewels and riches. Artisans were the middle class. The servants, farmers, slaves, beggars and fisherman were the lower middle class. The lower you were in the social class the farther away you lived from the pyramids and temples
All Inca subject were responsible for labor. In return for this, the government provided feasts at certain times during the year.
The government also issued out the necessities of life out of the state storehouses. These supplies included food, tools, raw materials, and clothing.
Most of the people in the Mayan civilization were farmers. They didn't own much; they had a small patch of land and a small house with thatch for a roof
Because of the government giving the subjects everything they needed, there were no markets. No one needed any more than they were given. Because of this, there was no currency within the Inca empire.
They grow cocoa beans, but it is only eaten by the nobles. The rest of the civilization uses them as currency.
They grow corn, wheat, and other regular foods to feed the populous and stay alive.
The Mayans also were a very warring civilization they picked fights with a lot of different tribes nearby. By doing this the other tribes eventually came back all at once and brought the Mayan Empire to an end,
The Mayan way of writing is like the Egyptians; they use hieroglyphs. They put this on a lot of their pyramids and temples and such to please the gods. A lot of it was destroyed by the Spanish, because when they came over they though their writing was "demonic writing" so they burned a lot of writing.

The Mayans are famous today for making the calendars. We only know of one types of calendars they made The Solar calendar, which is the regular calendar one that stopped on December 23, 2012. It had 365 days, 18 months they all have 20 days per month, and 5 days at the end. The other calendar is the Sacred Calendar pretty much only used my priests. Mostly, because it was made to detect omens and bad events on certain dates on the Solar calendar. The Sacred Calendar has 260 days and 13 weeks of 20 days.
The Mayans believed that their world was created around 3114 B.C. and that it would end on December 23, 2012. The Mayan religion is very similar to others; and they believed that all life was in the hands of divine powers. When they would go to war with other tribes and city-states they would take the nobles and leaders and use them as sacrifices. Like the civilization before it they believed in a jaguar-like god, it was considered evil and the god of night. Every time they saw a jaguar they believed it to be a bad omen. Their Man and supreme god was Itzamna meaning "Lizard House." another god who is very important to he Mayans is Kukulcan he is a serpent-like god; the god of wind. Other civilizations like the Toltecs and the Aztecs believed in a similar all powerful serpent god as well.
The Aztec empire covered almost all of modern day Mexico.
The Aztecs capital city was in the middle of a huge lake called Lake Texcoco
Since the city was in the middle of a lake, it had many canals running through it which made for good farming.
Life Style
Religion and Sacrifice
Their religion had many gods including:
Sun god Inti
Thunder god Illapa
Earth Mother goddess Pachamama
There were also regional deities that were worshiped by the people that had been conquered.
Incan gods were honored in many ways. Prayer, fasting, and animal sacrifice were a few lesser honors.
The most 'powerful' way to honor the gods was to perform human sacrifice. Typically, children and teenagers were the ones sacrificed.
People also believed mummification was an important funeral process, even with commoners.
Art and Architecture
They had some gold and silver art, but they prized themselves on their textiles works.
Grew cotton, sheared wool, and then used looms to create intricate fabrics.
Stone working was also prized. The stone blocks fit perfectly together without any type of mortar.
The Spanish began taking over in the 1530's.
Incan leaders still resisted until 1572 when the last city, Vilcabama, was conquered.
The Spanish were very impressed with what the Incas had created.
Their cities were as large as those in Europe, but more orderly and much more clean. Incan roads and aqueducts were 'superior' to Europe's.
The Olmec
The Ancient Olmec were the first major Mesoamerican culture.
Much of the Olmec culture has been lost.
They had a very rich religion
They were extremely talented artists and sculptors
They were talented architects and engineers
They were very diligent traders
No one knows what happened to the Olmec culture
The first signs of the Mayan civilization declining and beginning to meet their downfall is around 800 A.D. Most likely it was caused by maybe invasion, volcanoes, internal revolt, or overuse of the land. Cities like Tikal and Palenque were abandoned in this time probably from overuse of the land.
The Toltec
Territory consists of much of northern and central Mexico and eventually extends empire to the Mayan lands of Guatemala and the northern Yucatan Peninsula. They were very warlike people. By them being like this eventually the center of their empire, the city of Tula would be destroyed.

They used irrigation to help get the water to each of the plants so they could easily feed the population of 40,000-60,000 people

They made statues, pyramids, palaces, and temples. Instead of copying other civilizations architecture like they have with the pyramids and temples they wanted to make their own creation and they made statues as the ones in the picture below. The Toltecs were the first one s in their region to start using silver, gold, and copper.

Like most civilizations around it they believed in the supreme god Quetzalcoatl the
feathered serpent god. Sometimes he becomes the god of wind and sometimes
the feathered serpent.

Since they picked fights with so many nearby civilizations and tribes their empire
was destroyed. As in 1170 A.D. the city of Tula was sacked and destroyed and the empire ended.
The Olmec Gods
Jaguar God
First Mother and First Father
Hunahpu and Xbalanque
The Maize God
Itzam-Yeh: the Celestial Bird
Itzamná: Lord of the Heavens
K'awil: the god of sustenance
The Jaguar Sun God
Ix Chel: Lady Rainbow
Chac: the Rain God and Cosmic Monster
The Lords of Death
The Witz monster
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