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Transcript of 400
The Middle Ages
Prophet Muhammed PBUH of Islam is born. He is important because he is the last Prophet of Islam and he is the islamic messenger of god.
Battle of Tours. The Franks defeat the Muslims. Driving Islam out of Europe.
Charlemagne is crowned the Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III. Charlemagne united much of Western Europe and is considered the father of both the French and the German Monarchies. This brings Politics and Religion Together. Because of this he will be able to spread Christianity even farther in Europe.
Vikings from the Scandinavian lands (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) begin to invade northern Europe.
The Chinese invent gunpowder.
Feudalism is introduced into England.
Saint Patrick Brings Christianity to Ireland.
The Roman Empire Falls.
Saint Patrick Day Was Made To Honor Him.
Clovis becomes King of the Franks. Clovis united most of the Frankish tribes that were part of Roman Province of Gaul.
Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) Begins Teaching people about Islam. And about the Qur'an. This is Important because this is the last and final book of Islam.
Heian becomes the capital of Japan
Ghana falls to Muslim invaders. The Muslims enjoy many treasures when they took control of Ghana because of its natural gold mines. Before Muslims invaded Ghana there were two cities next to each other one was Ghana the other was a islamic city. Because of his stubborness the king of Ghana would not change his religion even with the muslims sending him messages that said to become muslim. After along time the king would still no become muslim. Because of that the Muslims invaded Ghana.
Start of the First of many Crusades. The Crusades were wars between the Christians and the Muslims over the Holy Land. They Fought over the Holy lands (Modern Day Jerusalem). The Crusaders wanted it because Jesus was born there, lived there, and died there.
Holt McDougal, Stanley m. Burstein, Richard Shek.
2014.2012. Houghton Mifflin Harcout Publishing. Florida
By: Tariq Rajei
Success for Christians.
Patrick was a monk who helped convert the Irish to Christianity.
Patrick was kidnapped in Britain and taken to Ireland, where he was forced to work as a Shepard. 6 years later he ran away. Because he could not stand the life of a slave anymore.
Later he returned to spread Christianity. According to legend, he won the favor of the Irish by driving out all the snakes out of Ireland into the sea. Then when he died the Irish called him a saint. Because he helped them with a major problem.
The Second Crusade.
The Third Crusade
The Fourth Crusade
French and German kings set off in 1147 to retake land from the Muslims. This second Crusade was a terrible failure. Poor planning and heavy losses on the journey to the Holy Land led to the Christians total defeat.
Success for Muslims.
The third Crusade began after the muslims retook Jerusalem in 1189. The rulers of England, France, and Holy Roman Empire led their armies to the Holy Land to fight for Jerusalem, but problems soon arose. The German king died, and the French kind left. Only King Richard I of England stayed in the Holy Land. King Richard's main opponent in the third crusade was Saladin, The brilliant leader of the Muslim forces. Crusaders respected his kindness toward fallen enemies. In turn Muslims admired Richards Bravery.
Muslims keep Jerusalem
In 1201 French knights arrived in Venice ready to sail to the holy land to begin a fourth Crusade. However, the knights didn't have money to pay for the voyage. For payment the Venetians asked the knights to conquer Zara, a rival trade city. The knights agreed. Later they also attacked Constantinople and carried off many treasures. The city that had been threatened by Muslims before the Crusades had been sacked by Christians.
As the Roman Empire fell, various groups from the north and east moved into former Roman lands. As they moved in, these groups created their own states. The Rulers of these states, usually powerful warlords, began to call themselves kings. These kings often fought among themselves. As a result, by the early 500s Europe was divided into many small kingdoms.
While the power of the Roman Empire was declining there dwelt on the banks of the River Rhine a number of savage Teuton tribes called Franks. The word Frank means free, and those tribes took pride in being known as Franks or freemen.
The Franks occupied the east bank of the Rhine for about two hundred years. Then many of the tribes crossed the river in search of new homes. The region west of the river was at that time called Gaul. Here the Franks established themselves and became a powerful people. From their name the country was afterwards called France. Each tribe of the Franks had its own king. The greatest of all these kings was Chlodwig, or Clovis, as we call him, who became ruler of his tribe in the year 481, just six years after Theodoric became king of the Ostrogoths.
The Battle of Tours was fought on October 10, 732 between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, near the city of Tours, France. During the battle, the Franks defeated the Islamic army and Emir Abdul Rahman was killed. This battle stopped the northward advance of Islam from the Iberian peninsula, and is considered by most historians to be of prehistorical importance, in that it halted the Islamic conquests, and preserved Christianity as the controlling faith in Europe, during a period in which Islam was overrunning the remains of the old Roman and Persian Empires.
In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it would remain for over one thousand years.
Just as Christian Europe had settled down after the barbarian invasions, followed by the onslaught of Islamic armies, a new wave of barbarian invaders came from the north in the form of the Vikings. These raiders came from the countries we now call Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. The Norsemen (North Men) were skilled craftsmen, navigators and sailors. Viking longships were capable of sailing seas and oceans, as well as maneuvering in very shallow rivers and streams. No place seemed safe from these raiders. The Norsemen believed in many gods and goddesses. Odin was their chief of the gods. Since the Vikings were not Christian, monasteries were favorite targets of these raiders for the loot that could be found within their walls.
During the Tang Dynasty, around 850 A.D., an enterprising alchemist (whose name has been lost to history) mixed 75 parts saltpeter with 15 parts charcoal and 10 parts sulfur. This mixture had no discernable life-lengthening properties, but it did explode with a flash and a bang when exposed to an open flame. According to a text from that era, "smoke and flames result, so that [the alchemists'] hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned down."
They made gunpowder by accident . They were trying to make elixir that would make a person immortal.
Feudalism is the name given to the system of government William I introduced to England after he defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings. Feudalism became a way of life in Medieval England and remained so for many centuries.
William I is better known as William the Conqueror. He had defeated the English army lead by Harold but he had to gain control of all of England before he could be truly called king of England. He was a foreigner who had forced his way to London. He was not popular with the people of England and he had to use force to maintain his control on England.
The outline of the Middle Ages.
Muslims still keep Jerusalem
While Europe was still reeling from the collapse of Rome, Charlemagne brought people together. He helped Europeans realize that they shared common things, such as religion.