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Spanish Capítulo 10 Repaso del curso Gr. 6 and 7
Transcript of Spanish Capítulo 10 Repaso del curso Gr. 6 and 7
Ser y estar-
In Spanish, there are two verbs that can be translated as "to be."
Those two verbs are Ser and Estar.
The word "the" occupies a unique place in English because it's the only word that grammarians classify as a definite article. It's completely different in the spanish language, where the English "the" has four equivalents. Like most adjectives, the definite article in Spanish varies with number and gender
Adjectives & Agreement
Adjectives are frequently descriptive. That is, most often adjectives are used to describe a noun, or distinguish the noun from a group of similar objects. For example, an adjective might describe the color of an object.
Preterite tense of regular verbs
The preterite tense is used for past actions that are seen as completed.
Ser Ex: What is she like?
She is quiet.
Ella es callada.
How is she acting?
She is being quiet.
Ella está callada.
-Singular masculine: el
-Singular feminine: la
-Plural masculine: los
-Plural feminine: las
-The basketball game was nail bitting.
-El juego de baloncesto fue fluctuante del clavo
-The players of the opposite team were very tough.
-Los jugadores del equipo contrario eran muy duros.
You see in Spanish "the" is much different from the English version of "the".
In Spanish, most adjectives change form, depending upon whether the word they modify is masculine or feminine.
Lets take the word tall (Alto) for example:
Masculine: El chico alto
Feminine: La chica alta
You see both articles are differnet and both endings of the word alto (Tall) Are different. "o" For masculine and "a" for feminine/
For something that has to do with more than one item or person you add an "S" to the description and item.
Preterite of ser and ir
Past tense of ser and ir:
Fact: Preterite means "past" in Latin!
Yes, they are the same.
Ser: to be
Ir: to go
-I want to be a teacher when i grow up
-Quiero ser un profesor cuando crezco
-Im going to the market, would you like anything?
-Voy al mercado, ¿quieres algo?
Verbs that change meaning in the preterite
Meaning of CONOCER in the preterite
-TO MEET - Conocí a su familia - I met his family
Meaning of SABER in the preterite
TO FIND OUT (TO KNOW FOR THE FIRST TIME) - Supimos la verdad - We found out the...
Meaning of PODER in the preterite
TO MANAGE/BE ABLE/ SUCCEED - Pude visitarlos - I was able to visit them
Meaning of NO PODER in the preterite
CANNOT/TO FAIL - No pude visitarlos - I couldn't (failed to) visit them (but tried)
Meaning of QUERER in preterite
TO ATTEMPT/ TRY - Quise verte - I attempted/try to see you
Meaning of NO QUERER in preterite
TO REFUSE - No quise verte - I refused to see you.
These are just some verbs that change meaning in the preterite.
The human body and conditions
-to become sad
Please note that this is not all the parts of the human body, conditions, and professions.
The imperfect tense:
-ar verbs -er and -ir verbs
yo -aba -ía
tú -abas -ías
él -aba -ía
nosotros -ábamos -íamos
vosotros -abais -íais
ellos -aban -ían
Impersonal and passive constructions seem very similar and can be quite confusing until you see them used together.
Impersonal expressions don’t really have any specific person in mind when they make general statements or questions about what “they,” “one,” or “you,” do, but rather people in general. That is what makes it impersonal.
-Se habla español en Uruguay. (They speak Spanish in Uruguay.)
-¿Cómo se va al teatro? (How does one get to the theater?)
Generally, we use the passive voice to indicate what happened to the object without saying who or what carried out the action. The object is acted upon by an outside agent, which is not to be specified.
-Se comió la torta. (The cake was eaten.)
here are some common spanish adverbs
Most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. This ending corresponds to -ly in English.
He ran quickly.
("quickly" describes how he "ran")
She spoke more slowly than he.
("slowly" describes how she "spoke")
("more" modifies "slowly")
Adverbs are words that describe, or modify, verbs, adjectives or other adverbs.
Adjective Fem. Form Adverb
claro clara claramente
constante constante constantemente
difícil difícil difícilmente
Another way to form an adverb is to use the preposition con + the singular form of the noun
cuidadosamente or con cuidado
perfectamente or con perfección
cariñosamente or con cariño
television la tele
el reloj de pared
The car and its accessories
trunk of a car
Notice not all home electronics or car parts.
to surf the web
para navegar por la web
"Por" and "Para"
"Por" and "para" have a variety of meanings, and they are often confused because they can each be translated as "for."
Gracias por la información.
Thanks for the information.
Este regalo es para Juan.
This gift is for Juan.
Rule: to express gratitude or apology
Rule: for multiplication and division
Rule: for velocity, frequency and proportion
Rule: meaning "through," "along," "by" or "in the area of"
Rule: when talking about exchange, including sales
Rule: to mean "on behalf of," or "in favor of,"
Rule: to express a length of time
Rule: to express an undetermined, or general time,
Rule: for means of communication or transportation
Rule: in cases of mistaken identity, or meaning "to be seen as"
Rule: to show the reason for an errand (with ir, venir, pasar, mandar, volver, and preguntar)
Rule: when followed by an infinitive, to express an action that remains to be completed, use por + infinitive
Rule: to express cause or reason
Rule: "estar por" means to be in the mood, or inclined to do something
Rule: in passive constructions
Rule: to indicate destination
Rule: to show the use or purpose of a thing
Rule: to mean "in order to" or "for the purpose of"
Rule: to indicate a recipient
Rule: to express a deadline or specific time
Rule: to express a contrast from what is expected
Rule: "estar para" to express an action that will soon be completed
Familiar commands with pronouns:
With all affirmative commands, the object pronouns are attached directly to the end of the imperative form of the verb.
Compre Ud. el anillo.
Buy the ring.
If both direct and indirect object pronouns are attached, the indirect object pronoun comes before the direct object pronoun.
Bring them to her.
All negative commands, the object pronouns come before the imperative form of the verb.
No traiga Ud. las cartas.
Don't bring the letters.
No las traiga.
Don't bring them.
the rule regarding two object pronouns: whenever both pronouns begin with the letter "l" change the first pronoun to "se."
le lo = se lo
le la = se la
le los = se los
le las = se las
les lo = se lo
les la = se la
les los = se los
les las = se las
Thanks for watching!