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1st layer (Long Version) - Representations of the Modern Child/Girl

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Cécile Armand

on 26 June 2014

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Transcript of 1st layer (Long Version) - Representations of the Modern Child/Girl

1st layer - Bodily Representations of the Modern Child/Girl
The Modern Girl's nudity /
sex appeal
American Strand
Chinese Strand
The Modern Girl's
nudity

= a global-local symbol of her
sex appeal
, making her either a
threat
to male power or an
object
for male consumption...
Transcultural
"hydrogen bond"
The Modern Child's nakedness
Innocence / weakness
American Strand
Chinese Strand
The Modern Child's
nakedness

= a global-local symbol of his alleged
innocence
- either negative (
weakness/fragility
) or positive (adults'
nostalgia/pity
)
Transcultural
"hygrogen bond"
The Body Surface
The multi-layered and multicolored skin
Skin color
Skin Texture
Modern Girl's softness /
Modern Child's tenderness
The Modern Child's skin's
tenderness
-
thinness
American Strand
Chinese Strand
Tenderness
and
thinness

= a transnational quality of babies' skin
requiring
special care

and thus
specific products
Transcultural
"hygrogen bond"
The Modern Girl's
skin's
softness
American Strand
Chinese Strand
Softness
(
velvety, cloud
)
= a transnational quality of the Modern Girl's skin expressing
high social status
and
racial
superiority?
Transcultural
"hygrogen bond"
White or red?

Markers of racial phenotype
or social status?
The cult of whiteness:
a global-local marker of either
racial
or
social
superiority
Modern Girl/Child dividing line
American/China dividing line
AMG
CMG
CMC
CMC : Chinese Modern Child
AMC : American Modern Child
CMG : Chinese Modern Girl
AMG : American Modern Girl
Modern Girl/Child dividing line
American/China dividing line
CMG
CMC
AMC
CMC : Chinese Modern Child
AMC : American Modern Child
CMG : Chinese Modern Girl
AMG : American Modern Girl
The ambiguous attraction of rosy or tanned complexion:
a global-local marker of health and beauty
AMC
AMG
The Modern Girl's
rosy
or
tanned
complexion constructed
racial
and
social
identities
Healthy rosy cheeks
Eugenic red-blood
Hygienic tan complexion
A broad color gradation scope reflecting and strengthening interwar
nationalist
and
nativistic
concerns in America.
Body Parts,
Body Fetish
The Modern Girls' hand/
The Modern Child's Feet
The
Modern Girls' hands fetish
:
from the
prewar
global fad for
hygenic beauty

to the
post-war
obsession for
hygienic productivity
Global roots/national-local ramifications
dividing line
Changes
1850
1950
1930s
America-China dividing line
CMG
AMG
CMG : Chinese Modern Girl
AMG : American Modern Girl
A global and continuous obsession for hands as
a
social marker
of
beauty

and a discrete sign of
mankind
and
civilization


The permanence, even expansion of
the
beauty appeal

across WWII
Continuity
Hands at
war
:
From
hygienic beauty
to
hygienic productivity
Global roots/national-local ramifications
dividing line
America-China dividing line
CMC
AMC
CMC : Chinese Modern Child
AMC : American Modern Child
White American
Modern Children's shoes
vs
gypsies' bare feet
:
Shoes to civilize the
American ethnic minorities
Chinese children's
healthy feet
and
hygienic shoes

to kick away the
sick man of Asi
a?

The
Modern Child's feet fetish
:
a ground for
national-building
and
civilizing processes
Two local versions of the global process of building a strong, healthy and united nation in the interwar years
:
the
American
quest for
federalism
since the civil war (1862-1865),
the Chinese nationalist movement against imperial powers since the opium wars (1839-1860)
Children's feet: a
globally/locally
grounded
nation-building process
Children's feet: a
globally
grounded the
civilizing process
A process rooted in the life-long
dual assimilation

between
children and primitive
colonized people/
adults and civilized
people or colonizer
0
The birth of the
"
noble savage
"
equated with
the figure of the
child
who need to be educated

Age of discovery
(15th-16th centuries)

17th-18th
centuries
Enlightment
Colonial Period
(19th-early 20th)
1800
The
bare feet
of the
Aborigens

vs the
Japanese colonizer
"s
shoed feet
in Taiwan
(Lee Jiu-Ling, 2014: 129-136)
1920-1930
Primitivism
and artistic representations of bare feet
Timeline for a general geneaology of the equation children-uncivilized people in colonial contexts
The arrow of changes beyond continuity.
Ked's divided nation:
Bare
foot vs
flat
foot
Warriors
: the national shoes to boot the imperial powers out of China?
From the
bound feet fetish

during imperial times to
the
hand fetish
in Republican China
(Jiang 2014: 134)
Normalizing
the body
Aesthetic judgement/
Anthropometric standards
The Whole Body
Undressing
the body
Modern Girl's nudity /
Modern Child's nakedness
Aesthetic Judgment on the Modern Girl
American Strand
Chinese Strand
The cult of fitness
Anthropometric standards on the Modern Child's body
American Strand
Chinese Strand

Beauty contests
Miss America Pageant
1940
The cult of
jianmei

Promoting the healthy beauty of women's bodies to strengthen the nation state
(Zhang Jingsheng, 1888-1970)
Modeling the Chinese Modern Girl
Guo Jianying
"Model of the Modern Girl"
1934
New Perceptionists' biologizing project
Klim
1932
Sanatogen
1934
"Kangjian zhi mei, nai shi zhen mei"
("Healty Beauty is True Beauty")
Foremost Milk
1930
Miss Kentucky
1946
Baby contests
Baohua Baby Photos Contest
Liangyou, 1926
Physical examination
Foremost Dairy Products
1929-1930
Physical Education
Tiyu

Athletic Games
Liangyou, 1926
Promoting youth physical education to build and strong and healthy nation
National Scouts Rally
Liangyou, 1930
Aunt Jemina's boy scouts
1931
Keds' athletich
high school girls
1926
Expressed the interwar nativistic anxieties
Nude
vs
naked
female bodies

Lan Weibang, "Wan'ou"
("The Plaything/Doll")
Liangyou, 1932
Weapons of Mass Seduction or
vulnerable dolls for male pleasure?
Girl Brand Florida Water
1930s
Palmolive Soap
1950
Swift's Wool Soap
1920
Colgate
1921
Sparrow Face Powder
1940
Palmolive Soap
1930
Woodbury Soap
"A skin you love to touch"
1916
Skin
soft texture
is often linked with its
white color
:
visuality
and
sensuality
are explicitly correlated by the caption and related to the women high social status.
"...it will make a woman’s skin look
white
and
soft

in a natural way"
"Why do
high class
women
feel beautiful and pleasant
when they apply
Sparrow Face Powder
?"
Colgate
1921
Scott Tissue
1940
Swift's
Wool Soap
1920
Helena Rubinstein
skin bleach
1928
Pompeian makeup
"Beauty Powder"
1928
Snow-White
(Baixue gongzhu)
1939
Zheng Mantuo (1888-1961)
Yang Guifei Coming from Her Bath
(Calendar poster for Dachang Tobacco Company)
1919

Foremost Ice Cream
1930

Quaker Quakies
1921

White American children,
Black nannies and
Red Indians story-tellers


Darkie
c. 1940
The Chinese baby appeal and the white smile of
the Black iconic salesman
Adapting the American whiteness to seasons and races
From Chinese classical poetry to Western fairy tales,
a lifelong cult of white skin
Five thousands years ago, according to authentic Chinese history, Chinese girls were plucking useless hairs from their eyebrows, and
putting rouge on their cheeks
(Crow, 1937 : 25-26)
A
famous Hangchow poet
(...)
almost ten centuries ago,
wrote sonnets in praise of the eyebrow pencil and the
perfumed rouge

of his lady love (...)
(Crow, 1937 : 25-26-25-26)
Savage Rouge
1935
An ambiguous
"savage appeal"

A dangerous
"sun appeal"
Dorothy Gray
Sunburn Cream
1936
Foremost Milk
1930
Quaker Oats
1920
Modern cosmetics were nothing but
an updating of the Chinese women's
ancient custom of putting rouge
on their cheeks
Mostly for technical reasons
(Zheng Mantuo's
cabi suicai
technique
),
calendar posters (
yuefenpai
)
were the best media
to represent Chinese Modern Girl's
and Modern Child's rosy cheeks
Zhiying Studio
Calendar poster for cigarettes
1930s
Reflecting the
health of the nation
itself,
the pattern of the Chinese children's rosy cheeks draws a continuous line between Modern China and the Mao era, blurring the boundary between commercial art and propaganda posters
Xie Zhiguang
'Warmly Love Chairman Mao'
11956
The legendary Tang dynasty beauty
Yang Guifei (719-756)
had been immortalized by the poet Bo Juyi
for her
snow white
complexion
(Weisenfeld, 2004: 574)

Zheng Mantuo (1888-1961)
Yang Guifei Coming from Her Bath
(Dachang Tobacco Company)
1919

Jin Meisheng (1902-1989)
Enjoying the Cool after Bathing
(Shanghai Huiming Flashlights and
Batteries Manufacturing Factory)
1930s
Yang Guifei was also associated by Chinese poets with the
peony
which connotates women's red cheeks
Hands Competition
Liangyou, 1930
Chinese 'Beauty'
exposing her lotus bound foot
Anonymous, late Qing
Evolution of
man's hand
Liangyou, 1941
Blazon advertisement for a floral water
Shenbao, 1929
Scottissue Towels
1931

Female advertisement
for Scottissue Towels
1950

Rolling up sleeves and "
degendering
"hands
in the postwar period

Reds's Hands
prefiguring the Cold War

WWII
Male advertisement
for Scottissue Towels
1950

Post-war French advertisement for Cutex
1950
Chinese War advertisement for Cutex
1941
The Cutex-Colonization:
Hygienic beautiful hands,
weapons of cultural imperialism?

The
bare feet
of
primitive
people
vs the
shoes
of
the
civilized
explorer
Amerigo Vespuci
landing in America
16th century
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Disrouce sur l'origine
de l'inégalitéparmi les hommes
1755
Paul Gauguin, Tahitian Women
(On the Beach)
1891
Shiotsuki Tōho
Portrait of Tayal's daughter
1927
Gendering the savage, gendering the child?
Keds'
1927
Warriors
1948
Keds'
1926
Warriors'
1948
The Modern Girl's
Hand Fetish

The Modern Child's
Foot Fetish

The whole body
The whole body
The skin
The skin
Meishu shenghuo
Cover illustration
1934
Wo fei dong ya bingfu!
(I am not the sick man of East Asia!)
1934
Keds'
1928
Alpine Sun Lamp
1929
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