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Unit 11: Testing

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james etheridge

on 9 March 2018

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Transcript of Unit 11: Testing

Cultural IQ Differences
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
Emotional Intelligence
Howard Gardner
Identification issues – ideals vs. practice
IQ 2 SD above mean standard
Creativity, leadership, special talent?
Stereotypes – weak, socially inept, emotionally troubled
Lewis Terman
(1925) – largely contradicted stereotypes
Ellen Winner
(1997) – moderately vs. profoundly gifted
Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness
Figure 9.7 The normal distribution
Standardization

Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
Test norms ~ No matter where or when
Standardization group

Reliability

Correlation coefficient- yield reasonably similar results.
Validity

Content validity measure what it was designed to measure
Key Concepts in
Psychological Testing
Psychological tests are standardized measures of behavior.
Mental ability tests
Intelligence
– general mental ability
Aptitude
– specific mental abilities
Personality scales
Measure motives, interests, values, and attitudes
scales, rather than tests, as there are no right or wrong answers.
Principle Types of Psychological Tests
2600 different types
Cognitive Conceptualizations of Intelligence
Sternberg’s triarchic theory


Expanding the Concept of Intelligence
Goleman’s emotional intelligence
Gardner’s multiple intelligences
New Directions in the Study of Intelligence
Heritability as an Explanation
Aurthur Jensen (1969)
Herrnstein and Murray (1994) – The Bell Curve
Environment as an Explanation
Kamin’s cornfield analogy – socioeconomic disadvantage
Steele (1997) - stereotype vulnerability
Cultural Differences in IQ
Figure 9.14 The concept of heritability
Figure 9.13 Studies of IQ similarity
Heredity

Family and twin studies provide evidence regarding the role of genetic factors
Heritability estimates 20-80%, 50/50?
Environment

Adoption studies provide evidence that upbringing plays an important role in mental ability
The Flynn effect
~ is the trend, all over the developed world, for IQ scores to increase from one generation to the next.
Interaction

The concept of the reaction range
Intelligence: Heredity or Environment?
Table 9-2, p. 349
Diagnosis based on IQ and adaptive testing
IQ 2 or more SD below mean
Adaptive skill deficits
Origination before age 18
4 levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound
Mild most common by far
Causes:
Environmental vs. biological
organic syndromes ~ 350 biological conditions that can cause intellectual disability have been identified.
only able to pin down an organic cause in <25% of cases.
Extremes of Intelligence:
Intellectually disabled

Intellectually disabled is a diagnosis reserved for individuals with sub-average general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18.
Exceptionally reliable
– correlations into the
.90s

Qualified validity
– valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense
Correlations:
.40s–.50s with school success
.60s–.80s with number of years in school
Predictive of occupational attainment,
Debate
about predictiveness of performance
Reliability and Validity of IQ tests
Sir Francis Galton

Hereditary Genius
~ success runs in families because intelligence is inherited
Alfred Binet
and Theodore Simon (1905)
Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale
Mental age
Lewis Terman
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100
The Evolution of Intelligence Testing
Figure 9.2 Test-retest reliability
Developed by Julian B. Rotter in 1954, and has since become an important aspect of personality studies.
Those with a
high internal locus of control
have better control of their behavior,
tend to exhibit more political behaviors,
and are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external (or low internal respectively) locus of control.
Those with a high internal locus of control are more likely to assume that their efforts will be successful.
They are more active in seeking information and knowledge concerning their situation.
Locus of control
Unit 11:
Intelligence
and
Psychological
Testing

Figure 9.24 Estimated prevalence of psychological disorders among people who achieved creative eminence
Figure 9.20 Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
Figure 9.17 Genetics and between-group differences on a trait
Figure 9.16 Reaction range
Giftedness and high achievement – beyond IQ
Renzulli (2002) – intersection of three factors ~ there is a more rare form of giftedness, based in an intersection of 3 factors, that leads to genuine greatness…













Simonton (2001) – drudge theory and inborn talent ~
A genius! For 37 years I’ve practiced fourteen hours a day, and now they call me a genius!” –
Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness
Figure 9.4 Criterion-related validity
Locus of Control


Score one point for each of the following:

2.a 3.b 4.b 5.b 6.a 7.a 9.a 10.b 11.b 12.b 13.b 15.b 16.a 17.a, 18.a 20.a 21.a 22.b 23.a 25.a 26.b 28.b 29.a.

0-23 possible
What is the definition of intelligent?
the gathering or distribution of information, especially secret information.
5.
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.

Locus of Control


Developed by Julian B. Rotter in 1954, and has since become an important aspect of personality studies.



• Individuals with a
high internal locus of control

believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and actions.
Those with a

high internal locus of control
have better control of their behavior,
tend to exhibit more political behaviors,
and are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external (or low internal respectively) locus of control.

• Those with a
high external locus of control
believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events.

A high score =
External
Locus of Control
A low score =
Internal
Locus of Control
1. “The ability to use memory, knowledge, experience, understanding, reasoning,
imagination and judgement in order to solve problems and adapt to new
situations.” AllWords Dictionary, 2006
2. “The capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.” The American Heritage Dictionary,
fourth edition, 2000
3. “Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex
ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to
engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.”
American Psychological Association [28]
4. “The ability to learn, understand and make judgments or have opinions that
are based on reason” Cambridge Advance Learner’s Dictionary, 2006
5. “Intelligence is a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves
the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend
complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience.” Common statement
with 52 expert signatories [13]
6. “The ability to learn facts and skills and apply them, especially when this
ability is highly developed.” Encarta World English Dictionary, 2006
7. “. . . ability to adapt effectively to the environment, either by making a change
in oneself or by changing the environment or finding a new one . . . intelligence
is not a single mental process, but rather a combination of many mental processes
directed toward effective adaptation to the environment.” Encyclopedia
Britannica, 2006
8. “the general mental ability involved in calculating, reasoning, perceiving relationships
and analogies, learning quickly, storing and retrieving information,
using language fluently, classifying, generalizing, and adjusting to new situations.”
Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, 2006
9. “Capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental
activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.”
Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2006
10. “The ability to learn, understand, and think about things.” Longman Dictionary
or Contemporary English, 2006
11. “: the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations :
. . . the skilled use of reason (2) : the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate
one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (as
tests)” Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2006
12. “The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills.” Compact Oxford
English Dictionary, 2006
13. “. . . the ability to adapt to the environment.” World Book Encyclopedia, 2006
14. “Intelligence is a property of mind that encompasses many related mental abilities,
such as the capacities to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly,
comprehend ideas and language, and learn.” Wikipedia, 4 October, 2006
15. “Capacity of mind, especially to understand principles, truths, facts or meanings,
acquire knowledge, and apply it to practise; the ability to learn and
comprehend.” Wiktionary, 4 October, 2006
16. “The ability to learn and understand or to deal with problems.” Word Central
Student Dictionary, 2006
17. “The ability to comprehend; to understand and profit from experience.” Wordnet
2.1, 2006
18. “The capacity to learn, reason, and understand.” Wordsmyth Dictionary, 2006
Locus of Control

Rotter's Locus of Control Scale
For each question select the statement that you agree with the most
1. a. Children get into trouble because their patents punish them too much.
b. The trouble with most children nowadays is that their parents are too easy with them.
2. a. Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are partly due to bad luck.
b. People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make.
3. a. One of the major reasons why we have wars is because people don't take enough interest in politics.
b. There will always be wars, no matter how hard people try to prevent them.
4. a. In the long run people get the respect they deserve in this world
b. Unfortunately, an individual's worth often passes unrecognized no matter how hard he tries
5. a. The idea that teachers are unfair to students is nonsense.
b. Most students don't realize the extent to which their grades are influenced by accidental happenings.
6. a. Without the right breaks one cannot be an effective leader.
b. Capable people who fail to become leaders hive not taken advantage of their opportunities.
7. a. No matter how hard you try some people just don't like you.
b. People who can't get others to like them don't understand how to get along with others.
8. a. Heredity plays the major role in determining one's personality
b. It is one's experiences in life which determine what they're like.
9. a. I have often found that what is going to happen will happen.
b. Trusting to fate has never turned out as well for me as making a decision to take a definite course of action.
10. a. In the case of the well prepared student there is rarely if ever such a thing as an unfair test.
b. Many times exam questions tend to be so unrelated to course work that studying in really useless.
11. a. Becoming a success is a matter of hard work, luck has little or nothing to do with it.
b. Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.
12. a. The average citizen can have an influence in government decisions.
b. This world is run by the few people in power, and there is not much the little guy can do about it.
13. a. When I make plans, I am almost certain that I can make them work.
b. It is not always wise to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to- be a matter of good or bad fortune anyhow.
14. a. There are certain people who are just no good.
b. There is some good in everybody.
15. a. In my case getting what I want has little or nothing to do with luck.
b. Many times we might just as well decide what to do by flipping a coin.
16. a. Who gets to be the boss often depends on who was lucky enough to be in the right place first.
b. Getting people to do the right thing depends upon ability. Luck has little or nothing to do with it.
17. a. As far as world affairs are concerned, most of us are the victims of forces we can neither understand, nor control.
b. By taking an active part in political and social affairs the people can control world events.
18. a. Most people don't realize the extent to which their lives are controlled by accidental happenings.
b. There really is no such thing as "luck."
19. a. One should always be willing to admit mistakes.
b. It is usually best to cover up one's mistakes.
20. a. It is hard to know whether or not a person really likes you.
b. How many friends you have depends upon how nice a person you are.
21. a. In the long run the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones.
b. Most misfortunes are the result of lack of ability, ignorance, laziness, or all three.
22. a. With enough effort we can wipe out political corruption.
b. It is difficult for people to have much control over the things politicians do in office.
23. a. Sometimes I can't understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give.
b. There is a direct connection between how hard 1 study and the grades I get.
24. a. A good leader expects people to decide for themselves what they should do.
b. A good leader makes it clear to everybody what their jobs are.
25. a. Many times I feel that I have little influence over the things that happen to me.
b. It is impossible for me to believe that chance or luck plays an important role in my life.
26. a. People are lonely because they don't try to be friendly.
b. There's not much use in trying too hard to please people, if they like you, they like you.
27. a. There is too much emphasis on athletics in high school.
b. Team sports are an excellent way to build character.
28. a. What happens to me is my own doing.
b. Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control over the direction my life is taking.
29. a. Most of the time I can't understand why politicians behave the way they do.
b. In the long run the people are responsible for bad government on a national as well as on a local level.
Locus of Control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them.
Section 1

– This reflects your NATURALIST strength
those who love the outdoors, animals, field trips. More than this, though, these students love to pick up on subtle differences in meanings. The traditional classroom has not been accommodating to these children.

Section 2
– This suggests your MUSICAL/RHYTHMIC strength
those who learn well through songs, patterns, rhythms, instruments and musical expression. It is easy to overlook students with this intelligence in traditional education.

Section 3
– This indicates your MATHEMATICAL/LOGICAL strength
those who display an aptitude for numbers, reasoning and problem solving. This is the other half of the students who typically do well in traditional classrooms where teaching is logically sequenced and students are asked to conform.

Section 4
– This illustrates your EXISTENTIALIST strength
those who learn in the context of where humankind stands in the "big picture" of existence. They ask "Why are we here?" and "What is our role in the world?" This intelligence is seen in the discipline of philosophy.

Section 5
– This reflects your INTERPERSONAL strength
those who are noticeably people oriented and outgoing, and do their learning cooperatively in groups or with a partner. These children may have typically been identified as "talkative" or " too concerned about being social" in a traditional setting.

Section 6
– This tells your BODILY/KINESTHETIC strength
those who experience learning best through activity: games, movement, hands-on tasks, building. These students were often labeled "overly active" in traditional classrooms where they were told to sit and be still!

Section 7
– This indicates your VERBAL/LINGUISTIC strength
children who demonstrate strength in the language arts: speaking, writing, reading, listening. These students have always been successful in traditional classrooms because their intelligence lends itself to traditional teaching.

Section 8
– This shows your INTRAPERSONAL strength
those who are especially in touch with their own feelings, values and ideas. They may tend to be more reserved, but they are actually quite intuitive about what they learn and how it relates to themselves.

Section 9
– This suggests your VISUAL/SPATIAL strength
children who learn best visually and organizing things spatially. They like to see what you are talking about in order to understand. They enjoy charts, graphs, maps, tables, illustrations, art, puzzles, costumes - anything eye catching.

Remember:
Everyone has all the intelligences!
You can strengthen an intelligence!
This inventory is meant as a snapshot in time – it can change!
M.I. is meant to empower, not label people!

Emotional intelligence (EQ)

the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges, and defuse conflict.
Emotional intelligence impacts many different aspects of your daily life, such as the way you behave and the way you interact with others.
Charles Spearman (1863-1945)
• “s” = specific ability

“g” = general intelligence

Score on any given test depends on a combination of these 2 factors
• s accounts for the differences in test results
• g accounts for the similarity in test results
Modern intelligence tests
• The
Wechsler
tests ~ Non verbal components
– used more widely now than Stanford-Binet
– modeled after Binet’s, also made adult test
• WISC-III for children
• WAIS-III for adults

The science of improving a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics. Developed largely by Francis Galton as a method of improving the human race, it fell into disfavor only after the perversion of its doctrines by the Nazis.
eu·gen·ics
xxxxxxx
ID
Intellectuality Disabled
Intellectuality Disability
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