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What's in our universe

Year 11 Physics - Astrophysics

DJ Horvat

on 27 July 2017

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Transcript of What's in our universe

Astrophysics is the application of physics to the study of the universe.
The Moon
Bone sticks from locations like Africa and Europe from possibly as long ago as 35,000 BCE are marked in ways that tracked the moon's phases.
Stonehenge was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 B
Many aspects of Stonehenge, such as how it was built and which purposes it was used for, remain subject to debate.
The great trilithon are aligned to the sunset of the winter solstice and the opposing sunrise of the summer solstice.
The precise orientation of the Egyptian pyramids affords a lasting demonstration of the high degree of technical skill in watching the heavens attained in the 3rd millennium BC.
It has been shown the Pyramids were aligned towards the pole star (Polaris), which is the closest visible star to the Earth's north celestial pole.
In the renaissance Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric system, in which the planets revolved around the Sun and not the Earth.
Ptolemy was an astronomer and mathematician. He believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe. The word for earth in Greek is geo, so we call this idea a "geocentric" theory.
Even starting with this incorrect theory, he was able to combine what he saw of the stars' movements with mathematics, especially geometry, to predict the movements of the planets.
Aristotle - He, too, believed in a geocentric Universe and that the planets and stars were perfect spheres though Earth itself was not.
His ideas, including the revelation that the Earth rotates on its axis, were too different for most of the scholars of his time to accept.
Galileo- and devised a telescope that could enlarge objects up to 20 times. He was able to use this telescope to prove the truth of the Copernican system of heliocentrism.
He published his observations which went against the established teaching of the Church. He was brought to trial and, although he made a confession of wrong-doing, he was still kept under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Phases of the moon
The moon produces no light of its own.
If any part of the moon’s surface is not in sunlight, we cannot see that part because space (the background) is black too. Because the moon revolves around the Earth, we see different amounts of its surface lit up during its 291⁄2-day cycle.
As the moon waxes (the amount of illuminated surface as seen from Earth is increasing), the lunar phases progress through new moon, crescent moon, first-quarter moon, gibbous moon, and full moon. The moon is then said to wane as it passes through the gibbous moon, third-quarter moon, crescent moon and back to new moon.
Only one side of the Moon is visible from Earth because the Moon rotates about its spin axis at the same rate that the Moon orbits the Earth, a situation known as synchronous rotation or tidal locking.
his means that one full ‘day’ of the moon (meaning the length of time it takes for the moon to rotate around itself once) is about 4 weeks long.
How did the moon become tidally locked?
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