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Chapter 4: Inference
Transcript of Chapter 4: Inference
Connotation may be positive or negative.
Whether a word is seen as positive or negative depends on one’s own experiences in society.
Writers select words carefully to manipulate the reader’s opinions.
Words reflect attitudes and prejudices of the writer.
Writers use clues within the text to IMPLY meaning
You make inferences and conclusions every day.
The nation’s capital is crawling with lawyers, lobbyists, registered foreign agents, and others – more than 14,000 individuals representing nearly 12,000 organizations – all seeking to influence Congress.
An oily midnight mist had settled on the city streets… asphalt mirrors from a ten-o’ clock rain now past… a sleazy street-corner reflection of smog-smudged neon…the corner of Sheridan and, incongruously, Sunnyside…Chicago.
A lone lady lingers at the curb…but no bus will come.She is Cindy Kane, twenty-eight . Twenty-eight hard years old. Her iridescent dress clings to her slender body. Her face is buried under a Technicolor avalanche of makeup.She is Cindy Kane. And she has a date.With someone she has never met…and may never meet again.Minutes have turned to timelessness… and a green Chevy four-door pulls slowly around the corner. The driver’s window rolls down. A voice comes from the shadow… “Are you working?” Cindy nods…regards him with vacant eyes. He beckons. She approaches the passenger side. Gets in. And the whole forlorn, unromantic ritual begins all over again. With another stranger.
Dear Mrs. Jones,
I wish to clarify that I am not now, nor have I ever been, an exotic dancer.
I work at Home Depot and I told my daughter how hectic it was last week before the blizzard hit. I told her we sold out every single shovel we had, and then I found one more in the back room, and that several people were fighting over who would get it. Her picture doesn't show me dancing around a pole. It's supposed to depict me selling the last snow shovel we had at Home Depot.
From now on I will remember to check her homework more thoroughly before she turns it in.
Would you rather be skinny or slender?
Would you like to transfer to an inner-city school?
Would you rather have a lazy teacher or a relaxed teacher?
What is the difference between a house and a home?
Let's write our own real estate ad...
for use with Chapter 4 of
Critical Approaches to Reading, Writing, and Thinking
Nicole Truitt Fall 2014
Delaware Technical Community College
What is an
Consider the following passage…..
Readers INFER meaning from the clues provided & their previous knowledge
The audience INFERS
The writer IMPLIES
Many jokes rely on IMPLIED meaning:
"What happens to little boys who lie?" asks the suspicious airline ticket agent.
"They get to fly at half price!" responds the boy.
Be intellectually humble
Engage with the material
Be aware of communal reinforcement:
Tendency of people to believe what they hear in their communities
What is repeated gains strength
Often ideas lack adequate evidence (but appear to be strong because of the sheer numbers of people who believe in it)
Recognize use of defense mechanisms
Avoid the status quo bias
When making INFERENCES,
be OPEN-MINDED and FLEXIBLE
This excerpt is from 'Government in America' by Robert Lineberry.
What two things do you need to make good inferences?
help you make an inference?
What conclusion do you draw about this guy?
What about this guy?
Why do we need to
List of tones - Page 118
What elements are examined in order to identify
What's an implication?
Watch out for
How does knowing the intended audience help you to make good inferences about the material?